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Literatur und weiterführende Links (FOOD 18-21)


Literaturliste zu Chrom

Althuis MD, Jordan NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT: Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 148–155.

Anderson RA et al. Lack of toxicity of chromium chloride and chromium picolinate in rats. J Am Coll Nutr 1997; 16: 273–279.

Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS. Chromium intake, absorption, and excretion of subjects consuming selfselected diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1985, 41: 1177–1183.

Anderson RA: Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev 1998;56:266–270.

Bagchi D, Stohs SJ, Downs BW, Bagchi M, Preuss HG: Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium. Toxicology 2002;180:5–22.

Bahadori B et al. Effects of chromium yeast and chromium picolinate on body composition in obese non-diabetic patients during and after a very-low-calorie diet. Acta Med Austriaca 1997; 24: 185–187.

Bahijri SM, Mufti AM. Beneficial effects of chromium in people with type 2 diabetes, and urinary chromium response to glucose load as a possible indicator of status. Biol Trace Elem Res 2002; 85: 97–109.

Balk EM et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 2154–2163.

Bartlett HE, Eperjesi F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2008; 28: 503–523.

Bennett R et al. High-dose chromium(III) supplementation has no effects on body mass and composition while altering plasma hormone and triglycerides concentrations. Biol Trace Elem Res 2006; 113: 53–66.

Blasiak J, Kowalik J. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Mutat Res. 2000;469:135-145.

Broadhurst CL, Domenico P. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus–a review. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006;8:677-687.

Bulbulian R et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation in male and female swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28 (Suppl.): 111.

Campbell WW, Beard JL, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, Evans WJ. Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: effects on iron-status and hematologic indexes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:944-949.

Cefalu WT, Hu FB (2004) Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27:2741–2751.

Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, Malone M, McGoldrick MD. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32:428-431.

Chen G, Liu P, Pattar GR, et al. Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:857-870.

Cheng HH, Lai MH, Hou WC, Huang CL: Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:1385–1389.

Clausen J. Chromium induced clinical improvement in symptomatic hypoglycemia. Biol Trace Elem Res 1988; 17: 229–236.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Chromium. In: A Report of the Panel of Micronutritients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutritients and of the Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Ed. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, pp. 197– 223. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2001

Gunton JE, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:99-104.

Hasten DL et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning weight training students. Int J Sport Nutr 1992; 2: 343–350.

Hellerstein MK. Is chromium supplementation effective in managing type II diabetes? Nutr Rev. 1998;56:302-306.

Hermann J, Arquitt A, Stoecker B: Effects of chromium supplementation on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and glucose in elderly subjects. Nutr Res 1994; 671–674.

Jeejeebhoy KN, Chu RC, Marliss EB, Greenberg GR, Bruce-Robertson A: Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation in a patient receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1977; 30: 531–538.

Kleefstra N et al. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 1092–1096.

Kobla HV, Volpe SL. Chromium, exercise, and body composition. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40:291-308.

Livolsi JM et al. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2001; 15: 161–166.

Lukaski HC, Siders WA, Penland JG: Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition 2007; 23 (3): 187–195.

Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:954-965.

Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):585S-593S.

Martin J, Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1826-1832.

Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr. 1993;123:626-633.

Milne DB: Laboratory assessment of trace element and mineral status. In: Clinical Nutrition of the Essential Trace Elements and Minerals. Ed. Bogden JD, Kleavy LM, 2000, pp. 69– 90. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey

Mooney KW, Cromwell GL. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, and accretion rates of carcass tissues in growing-finishing swine. J Anim Sci 1995; 73 : 3351–3357.

Pattar GR, Tackett L, Liu P, Elmendorf JS. Chromium picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions. Mutat Res. 2006;610:93-100.

Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:522-529.

Rabinovitz H et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2004; 74: 178–182.

Ravina A, Slezak L, Rubal A, Mirsky N: Clinical use of the trace element chromium (III) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Exper Med 1995; 8: 183–190.

Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, Bryden NA, Anderson RA: Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med 1999; 16: 164–167.

SCF: Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Trivalent Chromium, 2003.

Stearns DM et al.: Chromium (III) tris (picolinate) is mutagenic at the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mutat Res 2002; 513: 135–142.

Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996; 55: 297–305.

Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, Laakso M, Sarlund H, Kolehmainen P, Rasanen T, Kumpulainen J, Pyorala K: Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: Effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr 1992; 68:209–216.

Vincent JB: Recent advances in the biochemistry of chromium(III). J Trace Elem Exp Med 2003;16:227–236.

Vincent JB. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med 2003; 33: 213–230.

Voelker R. Cancer risk in dietary supplement. JAMA 1999; 281: 1480.

Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:293-306.

Walker LS et al. Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 1730–1737.

Wallach S. Clinical and biochemical aspects of chromium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 1985; 4: 107–120.

Wasser WG, Feldman NS, D’Agati VD. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:410.

WHO, World Health Organisation. Trace elements in human nutrition and health (A Report of a re-evaluation of the role of trace elements in human health and nutrition). Geneva, 1996

Zha LY et al. Efficacy of chromium(III) supplementation on growth, body composition, serum parameters, and tissue chromium in rats Biol Trace Elem Res 2007; 119: 42–50.


Literaturliste zu Eisen

Allen RP, Barker PB, Wehrl F, Song HK, Earley CJ. MRI measurement of brain iron in patients with restless legs syndrome. Neurology. 2001;56:263-265.

Altamura S, Muckenthaler MU. Iron toxicity in diseases of aging: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and atherosclerosis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16:879-895.

Anderson GJ, Darshan D, Wilkins SJ, Frazer DM. Regulation of systemic iron homeostasis: how the body responds to changes in iron demand. Biometals. 2007;20:665-674.

Andrews NC: Disorders of iron metabolism. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1986–1995.

Ascherio A, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ. Dietary iron intake and risk of coronary disease among men. Circulation. 1994;89:969-974.

Baker WF, Jr.: Iron deficiency in pregnancy, obstetrics, and gynecology. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2000;14:1061–1077.

Balducci L: Anemia, cancer, and aging. Cancer Control 2003;10:478–486.

Beard JL. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. J Nutr. 2001;131:568S-579S.

Beguin Y: Soluble transferrin receptor for the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron status. Clin Chim Acta 2003;329:9–22.

Benarroch EE. Brain iron homeostasis and neurodegenerative disease. Neurology. 2009;72:1436-1440.

Berglund S, Westrup B, Domellöf M. Iron supplements reduce the risk of iron deficiency anemia in marginally low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2010; 126: 874–883.

Berkovitch M, Matsui D, Lamm SH, Rosa F, Koren G: Recent increases in numbers and risk of fatalities in young children ingesting iron preparations. Vet Hum Toxicol 1994;36:53–55.

Brigham D, Beard J: Iron and thermoregulation: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1996;36:747–763.

Brise H: Influence of meals on iron Resorption in oral iron therapy. Acta Med Scand 1962;171 (Suppl 376):39–45.

Brock JH: Benefits and dangers of iron during infection. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999;2:507–510.

Brugnara C: Reticulocyte cellular indices: A new approach in the diagnosis of anemias and monitoring of erythropoietic function. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2000;37:93–130.

Bulaj ZJ, Phillips JD, Ajioka RS, Franklin MR, Griffen LM, Guinee DJ, Edwards CQ, Kushner JP: Hemochromatosis genes and other factors contributing to the pathogenesis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Blood 2000; 95:1565–1571.

Cavill I: Intravenous iron as adjuvant therapy: A two-edged sword? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003;18 Suppl 8:24–28.

Conrad ME, Umbreit JN: Pathways of iron Resorption. Blood Cells Mol 2002; Dis 29:336–355.

Danesh J, Appleby P. Coronary heart disease and iron status: meta-analyses of prospective studies. Circulation. 1999;99:852-854.

de Valk B, Marx JJ. Iron, atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(14):1542-1548.

Earley CJ, Connor JR, Beard JL, Malecki EA, Epstein DK, Allen RP: Abnormalities in CSF concentrations of ferritin and transferrin in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2000;54:1698-1700.

Earley CJ: Clinical practice. Restless legs syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2103–2109.

Fairweather-Tait SJ: Iron. J Nutr 2001;131:1383S– 1386S.

Feder JN, Gnirke A, Thomas W, et al. A novel MHC class I-like gene is mutated in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. Nat Genet. 1996;13:399-408.

Fleming DJ, Jacques PF, Tucker KL, et al. Iron status of the free-living, elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort: an iron-replete population with a high prevalence of elevated iron stores. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:638-646.

Fleming MD. The regulation of hepcidin and its effects on systemic and cellular iron metabolism. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2008:151-158.

Ganz T: Hepcidin in iron metabolism. Curr Opin Hematol 2004;11:251–254.

Gera T, Sachdev HP: Effect of iron supplementation on incidence of infectious illness in children: Systematic review. BMJ 2002;325:1142.

Grantham-McGregor S, Ani C. A review of studies on the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive development in children. J Nutr. 2001;131:649S-666S.

Haas JD, Brownlie T: Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: A critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J Nutr 2001; 131:676S–688S.

Haile DJ: Regulation of genes of iron metabolism by the iron-response proteins. Am J Med Sci 1999; 318:230–240.

Hallberg L, Hulthen L: Prediction of dietary iron Resorption: an algorithm for calculating Resorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71:1147–1160.

Hernandez C, Lecube A, Carrera A, Simo R. Soluble transferrin receptors and ferritin in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2005;22(1):97-101.

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Janssen MC, Swinkels DW. Hereditary haemochromatosis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;23:171-183.

Jehn M, Clark JM, Guallar E. Serum ferritin and risk of the metabolic syndrome in US adults. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2422-2428.

Jiang R, Manson JE, Meigs JB, Ma J, Rifai N, Hu FB. Body iron stores in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy women. JAMA 2004;291:711-717.

Kato I, Dnistrian AM, Schwartz M, et al. Iron intake, body iron stores and colorectal cancer risk in women: a nested case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1999;80:693-698.

Kaur D, Andersen JK: Ironing out Parkinson’s disease: Is therapeutic treatment with iron chelators a real possibility? Aging Cell 2002; 1:17–21.

Ke Y, Ming Qian Z: Iron misregulation in the brain: A primary cause of neurodegenerative disorders. Lancet Neurol 2003;2:246–253.

Kemp JD, Thorson JA, McAlmont TH, Horowitz M, Cowdery JS, Ballas ZK: Role of the transferrin receptor in lymphocyte growth: A rat IgG monoclonal antibody against the murine transferrin receptor produces highly selective inhibition of T and B cell activation protocols. J Immunol 1987;138:2422–2426.

Klipstein-Grobusch K, Grobbee DE, den Breeijen JH, Boeing H, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(5):421-428.

Kruszewski M: Labile iron pool: The main determinant of cellular response to oxidative stress. Mutat Res 2003;531:81–92.

Lieu PT, Heiskala M, Peterson PA, Yang Y: The roles of iron in health and disease. Mol Aspects Med 2001;22:1–87.

Locatelli F, Aljama P, Barany P, Canaud B, Carrera F, Eckardt KU, Horl WH, Macdougal IC, Macleod A, Wiecek A, Cameron S: Revised European best practice guidelines for the management of anaemia in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19 Suppl 2:1–47

Lovell MA, Robertson JD, Teesdale WJ, Campbell JL, Markesbery WR: Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer’s disease senile plaques. J Neurol Sci 1998;158:47–52.

Lozoff B. Iron deficiency and child development. Food Nutr Bull. 2007;28(4 Suppl):560-571.

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Mahomed K: Iron and folate supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000a CD001135

Mahomed K: Iron supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000b CD000117

McCann JC, Ames BN. An overview of evidence for a causal relation between iron deficiency during development and deficits in cognitive or behavioral function. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:931-945.

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Kursübergreifende Literaturangaben zu Vitaminen und Spurenelementen

Biesalski HK, Biscoff SC, Puchstein C. Ernährungsmedizin. Nach dem neuen Curriculum Ernährungsmedizin der Bundesärztekammer. 4. Auflage. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 2010

Bundesinstitut für gesundheitllichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinärmedizin. Toxikologische und ernährungsphysiologische Aspekte der Verwendung von Mineralstoffen und Vitaminen in Lebensmitteln. Teil I: Mineralstoffe (einschließlich Spurenelemente). Vorschläge für Regelungen und Höchstmengen zum Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Überdosierung beim Verzehr von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln (NEM) und angereicherten Lebensmitteln. Januar 2002.

Cliniguía. Actualización de diagnóstico y terapéutica. EviScience Publicaciones 2011

Colastra J: Lamberts. Manual de Nutrición Ortomolecular. El manual de consulta imprescindible. SIE Consultants sl 2010

D-A-CH, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung (DGE), Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung (ÖGE), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährung (SGE), Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung (SVE): Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. Umschau Braus GmbH, Verlagsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 2008.

D-A-CH (2000) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung (DGE), Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung (ÖGE), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung (SGE), Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung (SVE): Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 1. Auflage, Umschau/Braus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung: Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 1. Auflage, 5., korrigierter Nachdruck, Neuer Umschau Buchverlag, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, 2013.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung: Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. Verfügbar unter: https://www.dge.de/wissenschaft/referenzwerte/ (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Dietl H., Ohlenschläger G. (2003) Handbuch der Orthomolekularen Medizin. Karl F. Haug Verlag, Stuttgart

Domke A, Großklaus R, Niemann B, Przyrembel H, Richter K, Schmidt E, Weißenborn A, Wörner B, Ziegenhagen R: Verwendung von Mineralstoffen in Lebensmitteln. Toxikologische und ernährungsphysiologische Aspekte Teil II Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung. Verfügbar unter: http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/350/verwendung_von_mineralstoffen_in_lebensmitteln_bfr_wissenschaft_4_2004.pdf (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Einkaufs-und Ernährungsverhalten in Deutschland TNS-Emnid-Umfrage des Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft, BMEL, (2014).

Europäische Richtlinie (2008/100/EG) vom 28. Oktober 2008 über die Nährwertkennzeichnung von Lebensmitteln hinsichtlich der empfohlenen Tagesdosen, der Umrechnungsfaktoren für den Energiewert und der Definitionen online verfügbar unter: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32008L0100:DE:HTML (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Europäische Empfehlungen: European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned (EURRECA). Verfügbar unter: http://www.eufic.org/en/collaboration/article/european-micronutrient-recommendations-aligned (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Food and Nutrtition Information Center der US Regierung (DRI-Empfehlungen). Verfügbar unter: https://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/dri-nutrient-reports (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Food Standards Agency (2002) Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Review of Molybdenum.

Food Standards Agency (2003) Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, May 2003

Gröber U: Orthomolekulare Medizin. Ein Leitfaden für Apotheker und Ärzte. 3. Auflage. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Stuttgart 2008

Heppe F, Wigand M: Lexikon Diätetische Indikationen. Spezielle Ernährungstherapie und Ernährungsprävention. 4. Auflage. Springer 2002

Hernandez Ramos F: Antienvejecimiento con nutrición ortomolecular. Integral 2007

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