• Es befinden sich keine Produkte im Warenkorb.


Literatur und weiterführende Links (FOOD 48-49)


ACSM Position Stand: Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 377-390.

Alaswad K, O’Keefe JH Jr, Moe RM: Combination drug therapy for dyslipidemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep 1999; 1: 44-9.

Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R. The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids. 2001; 21: 139-150.

American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: i-vii.

American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada; American College of Sports Medicine, Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 709-31.

Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Maresh CM, Ganio MS. Caffeine, fluid-electrolyte balance, temperature regulation, and exercise- heat tolerance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007; 35: 135-140.

Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Millard-Stafford M, Moran DS, Pyne SW, Roberts WO. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exertional heat illness during training and competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39: 556-572.

Armstrong LE, Pumerantz AC, Roti MW, Judelson DA, Watson G, Dias JC, Sokmen B, Casa DJ, Maresh CM, Lieberman H, Kellogg M. Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005; 15 :252-265.

Armstrong LE. Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002; 12: 189-206.

Augustin LS, Francheschi S, Jenkins DJA et al. Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review. Eur. J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 1049-1071.

Backhouse SH, Biddle SJ, Bishop NC, Williams C. Caffeine ingestion, affect and perceived exertion during prolonged cycling. Appetite. 2011;57:247-52.

Bar-Or O: Children’s responses to exercise in hot climates: Implications for performance and health. Sports Sci Exchange 1994; 7: 49.

Bemben MG, Lamont HS. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: Recent findings. Sports Med. 2005; 35: 107-125.

Bendich A. Exercise and free radicals: Effects of antioxidant vitamins. In: Brouns F (ed) Advances in nutrition and top sport. Med Sport Sci 1991; 59-78.

Berg A, König D. Oxidativer Stress und Sport – Standards der Sportmedizin. Dtsch Z Sportmed 2000; 51: 177–178.

Berg A. Oxidativer Stress, Sport und AOV-Status. Schweiz Z Ernährungsmed 2006: 4: 26–29.

Bergeron MF. Heat cramps: Fluid and electrolyte challenges during tennis in the heat. J Sci Med Sport. 2003; 6: 19-27.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Hu FB, Zhang Y, Karlson EW, Dawson- Hughes B. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged ≥ 60 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 752-758.

Blom PCS, Hostmark AT, Vaage O, et al: Effects of different post exercise sugar diets on the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: 471-496.

Blomstrand E, Ek S, Newsholme EA. Influence of ingesting a solution of branched-chain amino acids on plasma and muscle concentrations of amino acids during prolonged submaximal exercise. Nutrition 1996; 12: 485-90.

Bloomer RJ, Smith WA: Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation. Res Sports Med 2009, 17: 1-16.

Bohl CH, Volpe SL: Magnesium and Exercise. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2002; 42: 533–563.

Bonke D, Nickel B: Improvement of fine motoric movement control by elevated dosages of vitamin B1, B6, and B12 in target shooting. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1989; 30: 198-204.

Bonke D: Influence of vitamin B1, B6, and B12 on the control of fine motoric movements. Bibl Nutr Dieta 1986: 104-9.

Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: A meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003; 13: 198-226.

Brass EP: Supplemental carnitine and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 72(2 Suppl): 618S-23S.

Brownlie T, Utermohlen V, Hinton PS, Haas JD. Tissue iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 437-443.

Brutsaert TD, Hernandez-Cordero S, Rivera J, Viola T, Hughes G, Haas JD: Iron supplementation improves progressive fatigue resistance during dynamic knee extensor exercise in iron-depleted, nonanemic women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 77: 441-8.

Burke LM, Collier GR, Beasley SK, et al: Effect of co-ingestion of fat and protein with carbohydrate feedings on muscle glycogen storage. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78: 2187-2192.

Burke LM, Collier GR, Hargreaves M: The glycemic index: A new tool in sports nutrition?. Int J Sports Nutr 1998; 8: 401-415.

Cade R, Conte M, Zauner C, Mars D, Peterson J, Lunne D, Hommen N, Packer D: Effects of phosphate loading on 2,3 diphosphoglycerate and maximal oxygen uptake. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984; 16: 263-8.

Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Anderson RA, Davey SL, Hinton J, Evans WJ: Effects of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2002, 12: 125-35.

Candow DG, Burke NC, Smith-Palmer T, Burke DG. Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006; 16: 233-44.

Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Davison KS, Smith-Palmer T: Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001, 86: 142-9.

Casa D.: Proper hydration for distance running: Identifying individual fluid needs. USA Track and Field Advisory April 2003. In: Rosenbloom C., ed. Sports Nutrition: A Guide for the Professional Working with Active People, Chicago: American Dietetic Association; 2000.

Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 76: 524-32.

Castell LM, Newsholme EA. The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Nutrition 1997; 13: 738-42.

Castellani JW, Young AJ, Ducharme MB, Giesbrecht GG, Glickman E, Sallis RE. American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Prevention of cold injuries during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38: 2012-2029.

Coggan AR, Coyle EF. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise: Effects on metabolism and performance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1991; 19: 1-40.

Coleman E: Carbohydrate and exercise. In: Rosenbloom C., ed. Sports Nutrition: A Guide for the Health Professional Working with Active People, Chicago: American Dietetic Association; 2000: 13-31.

Colker CM: Effects of supplemental protein on body composition and muscular strength in healthy athletic male adults. Curr Ther Res 2000, 61(1): 19-28.

Colombani P, Wenk C, Kunz I, et al. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double-blind crossover field study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1996; 73: 434-9.

Cooper R, Naclerio F, Allgrove J, Jimenez A. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 33.

Cowell BS, Rosenbloom CA, Skinner R, Summers SH. Policies on screening female athletes for iron deficiency in NCAA division I-A institutions. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003; 13: 277-285.

Coyle E, Jeukendrup A, Wagenmakers A, Saris W. Fatty acid oxidation is directly regulated by carbohydrate metabolism during exercise. Am J Physiol. 1997; 273: E268- 275.

Cramp T, Broad E, Martin D, Meyer BJ. Effects of preexercise carbohydrate ingestion on mountain bike performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004; 36: 1602-1609.

Cribb PJ, Wiliams AD, Carey MF, Hayes A. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006; 16: 494-509.

Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Stathis CG, et al. Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 298-307.

Crowe MJ, Leicht AS, Spinks WL. Physiological and cognitive responses to caffeine during repeated, high-intensity exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006; 16: 528- 544.

DeMarco HM, Sucher KP, Cisar CJ, Butterfield GE. Pre-exercise carbohydrate meals: Application of glycemic index. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: 164-170.

Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, et al. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103: 1736-43.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V.: https://www.dge.de/ (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Elmadfa I, Freisling H, Novak V. (2009): Österreichischer Ernährungsbericht 2008, Wien.

Evans WJ, Cannon JC: The metabolic effects of exercise-induced muscle damage. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1991; 19: 99-125.

Febbraio MA, Stewart KL. CHO feeding before prolonged exercise: Effect of glycemic index on muscle glycogenolysis and exercise performance. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 81: 1115-1120.

Fogelholm GM, Naveri HK, Kiilavuori KT, Harkonen MH. Low-dose amino acid supplementation: no effects on serum human growth hormone and insulin in male weightlifters. Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 290-7.

Fogelholm M, Ruokonen I, Laakso JT, Vuorimaa T, Himberg JJ: Lack of association between indices of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 status and exercise-induced blood lactate in young adults. Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 165-76.

Folland JP, Stern R, Brickley G: Sodium phosphate loading improves laboratory cycling time-trial performance in trained cyclists. J Sci Med Sport 2008, 11: 464-8.

Food and Nutrition Board: Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th ed. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1989.

Forster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 5-56.

Garg R, Malinow M, Pettinger M, Upson B, Hunninghake D: Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. Am Heart J 1999; 138: 1082-7.

Garlick PJ, Grant I: Amino acid infusion increases the sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis in vivo to insulin. Effect of branched-chain amino acids. Biochem J 1988; 254: 579-84.

Gibson RS, Heath AL, Ferguson EL: Risk of suboptimal iron and zinc nutriture among adolescent girls in Australia and New Zealand: causes, consequences, and solutions. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002; 11 (Suppl 3): S543-52.

Gleeson M, Bishop NC: Elite athlete immunology: importance of nutrition. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21 (Suppl 1): S44-50.

Gomez-Cabrera M-C, Domenech E, Romagnoli M, Arduin A, Borras C, Pallardo FV, Sastre J, Vina, J. Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008; 87: 142-149.

Graham T, Moissey L. Caffeine, creatine and food-drug synergy: Ergogenics and applications to human health. In: Thompson L, Ward W, eds. Food Drug Synergy and Safety. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2005.

Greer F, Friars D, Graham TE. Comparison of caffeine and theophylline ingestion: exercise metabolism and endurance. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 1837-44.

Groeneveld GJ, Beijer C, Veldink JH, Kalmijn S, Wokke JH, van den Berg LH. Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial. Int J Sports Med. 2005; 26: 307-313.

Harris R, Dunnett M, Greenhaf P: Carnosine and Taurine contents in individual fibres of human vastus lateralis muscle. J Sport Sci 1998, 16: 639-43.

Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006; 30: 279-89.

Haub MD, Potteiger JA, Nau KL, et al. Acute L-glutamine ingestion does not improve maximal effort exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1998; 38: 240-4.

Heinonen OJ. Carnitine and physical exercise. Sports Med 1996; 22: 109-32.

Helgren M, Cliffer K, Torrento K et al: Neurotrophin-3 administration attenuates deficits of pyridoxine-induced large fiber sensory neuropathy. J Neurosci 1997; 17: 372–382

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007; 32: 225-33.

Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 266-281.

Howell LL, Coffin VL, Spealman RD. Behavioral and physiological effects of xanthines in nonhuman primates. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1997; 129: 1-14.

Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2000.

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2004.

Jenkins RR: Exercise, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: a review. Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 356-375.

Jentjens RL, Cale C, Gutch C, Jeukendrup AE. Effects of pre-exercise ingestion of differing amounts of carbohydrate on subsequent metabolism and cycling performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 88: 444- 452.

Jeukendrup A, Saris W. Fat as a fuel during exercise. In: Berning J, Steen S, eds. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers Inc; 1998: 59- 76.

Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: A critical review. Clin J Sport Med. 1998; 8: 298-304.

Kanter MM: Free radicals, exercise, and antioxidant supplemenation. Int J Sport Nutr 1994; 4: 205-220.

Kirwan JP, O’Gorman DJ, Cyr-Campbell D, Campbell WW, Yarasheski KE, Evans WJ. Effects of a moderate glycemic meal on exercise duration and substrate utilization. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: 1517-1523.

Kreider RB, Miller GW, Schenck D, Cortes CW, Miriel V, Somma CT, Rowland P, Turner C, Hill D: Effects of phosphate loading on metabolic and myocardial responses to maximal and endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr 1992, 2: 20-47.

Kreider RB, Miller GW, Williams MH, Somma CT, Nasser TA: Effects of phosphate loading on oxygen uptake, ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and run performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990, 22: 250-6.

Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L et al: International Society of Sports Nutrition exercise and sport nutrition review: Research and recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutrition 2010: 7; 1-43.

Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, Cooke M, Earnest CP, Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Kerksick CM, Kleiner SM, Leutholtz B, Lopez H, Lowery LM, Mendel R, Smith A, Spano M, Wildman R, Willoughby DS, Ziegenfuss TN, Antonio J. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010; 7: 7.

Kreider RB: Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Med 1999; 27: 97-110.

Lambert EV, Speechly DP, Dennis SC, Noakes TD. Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate-intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high-fat diet. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994; 69: 287-293.

Lenzi A, Sgro P, Salacone P, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 1578-84.

Low SY, Taylor PM, Rennie MJ: Responses of glutamine transport in cultured rat skeletal muscle to osmotically induced changes in cell volume. J Physiol 1996, 492: 877-85.

Lukaski HC: Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutrition and athletic performance. Can J Appl Physiol 2001; 26: S13-22.

MacLean DA, Graham TE, Saltin B. Branched-chain amino acids augment ammonia metabolism while attenuating protein breakdown during exercise. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: E1010-22.

MacLean DA, Graham TE. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation augments plasma ammonia responses during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 2711-7.

Marconi C, Sassi G, Carpinelli A, Cerretelli P. Effects of L-carnitine loading on the aerobic and anaerobic performance of endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1985; 54: 131-5.

Margaritis I, Tessier F, Prou E, Marconnet P, Marini JF: Effects of endurance training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacities with and without selenium supplementation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1997; 11: 37-43.

Maughan RJ, Noakes TD: Fluid replacement and exercise stress. A brief review of studies on fluid replacement and some guidelines for the athlete. Sports Med 1991, 12(1): 16-31.

Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, Galloway DR, Leiper JB: Dehydration and fluid replacement in sports and exercise. Sports Exerc Inj 1995; 1: 148-153.

Mayhew DL, Mayhew JL, Ware JS. Effects of long-term creatine supplementation on liver and kidney functions in American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002; 12: 453-460.

McBride JM, Kraemer WJ, Triplett-McBride T, Sebastianelli W. Effect of resistance exercise on free radical production. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Jan; 30: 67-72.

McConell G, Kloot K, Hargreaves M. Effect of timing of carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996; 28: 1300-1304.

McCutcheon LJ, Geor RJ: Sweating. Fluid and ion losses and replacement. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1998; 14: 75-95.

Meier C, Woitge HW, Witte K, Lemmer B, Seibel MJ. Supplementation with oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter prevents seasonal bone loss: A randomized controlled open-label prospective trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19: 1221-1230.

Micheletti A, Rossi R, Rufini S. Zinc status in athletes: Relation to diet and exercise. Sports Med. 2001; 31: 577-582.

Montain SJ, Coyle EF: The influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 1340-1350.

Moseley L, Lancaster GI, Jeukendrup AE. Effects of timing of pre-exercise ingestion of carbohydrate on subsequent metabolism and cycling performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 88: 453-458.

Mougios V. Exercise Biochemistry. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2006.

Muoio DM, Leddy JJ, Horvath PJ, Awad AB, Pendergast DR. Effect of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994; 26: 81-88.

Murray R, Bartoli WP, Eddy DE, Horn MK: Physiological and performance responses to nicotinic-acid ingestion during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 1057-62.

Murray R: Fluid needs in hot and cold environments. Int J Sports Nutr 1995; 5: S62-S73.

Nakagawa K. Effect of vitamin D on the nervous system and the skeletal muscle. Clin Calcium. 2006; 16: 1182-1187.

National Athletic Trainers Association: Position statement: Fluid replacement for athletes. J Athl Train 2000; 35: 212-224.

Neufer PD, Young AJ, Sawka MN: Gastric emptying during exercise: Effects of heat stress and dehydration. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 58: 433-439.

Nielsen FH, Lukaski HC: Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise. Magnes Res. 2006; 19: 180–189.

Nieman DC: Nutrition, exercise, and immune system function. Clin Sports Med 1999; 18: 537-48.

Nikolaidis MG, Kerksick CM, Lamprecht M, McAnulty SR. Does vitamin C and E supplementation impair the favorable adaptations of regular exercise? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012; 2012: 707941.

Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53: 831-9.

Okano G, Sato Y, Murata Y. Effect of elevated blood FFA levels on endurance performance after a single fat meal ingestion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998; 30: 763-768.

Palmer MS, Spriet L. Sweat rate, salt loss, and fluid intake during an intense on-ice practice in elite Canadian male junior hockey players. Appl Phys Nutr Metab. 2008; 33: 267-271.

Platen P: Mikronährstoffe in der Sportmedizin. In: Biesalski HK, Köhrle J, Schümann K: Vitamine, Spurenelemente und Mineralstoffe. Prävention und Therapie mit Mikronährstoffen. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, 2002, 326-342.

Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: Fact or fiction? Sports Med. 2000; 30: 155-170.

Rennie MJ, Ahmed A, Khogali SE, Low SY, Hundal HS, Taylor PM: Glutamine metabolism and transport in skeletal muscle and heart and their clinical relevance. J Nutr 1996; 126: 1142S-9S.

Ristow M, Zarse K, Oberbach A, Klöting N, Birringer M, Kiehntopf M, Stumvoll M, Kahn CR, Blüher M. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U S A. 2009; 106: 8665-8670.

Rohde T, Asp S, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Competitive sustained exercise in humans, lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and glutamine–an intervention study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998; 78: 448-53.

Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 856-62.

Saur P: Magnesium – Evaluation und Bedeutung des Magnesiumstatus. Shaker-Verlag, Aachen, 2001.

Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39: 377-390.

Sawka MN, Montain SJ: Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 564S-72S.

Sawka MN, Pandolf KB: Effects of body water loss on physiological function and exercise performance. In: Gisolfi C.V., Lamb D.R., ed. Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine: Fluid Homeostasis During Exercise, Indianapolis, Ind: Benchmark Press; 1990: 1-38.

Schabort EJ, Bosch AN, Weltan SM, Noakes TD. The effect of a preexercise meal on time to fatigue during prolonged cycling exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: 464-471.

Schänzer W, Thevis M. Doping im Sport. Medizinische Klinik 2007; 102: 631-646.

Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A et al: Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse – a new megavitamin syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 445–448.

Sherman WM, Brodowicz G, Wright DA, et al: Effects of 4h preexercise carbohydrate feedings on cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 12: 598-604.

Sherman WM, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Miller JM: The effect of exercise and diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent use during performance. Int J Sports Med 1981; 2: 114-118.

Sherman WM, Peden MC, Wright DA: Carbohydrate feeding 1 h before exercise improves cycling performance. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 866-870.

Siegel AJ, Januzzi J, Sluss P, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Wood M, Shirey T, Lewandrowski KB: Cardiac Biomarkers, Electrolytes, and Other Analytes in Collapsed Marathon Runners Implications for the Evaluation of Runners Following Competition. Am J Clin Pathol 2008; 129: 948–951.

Sinclair CJ, Geiger JD. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000; 40: 71-9.

Singh A, Failla ML, Deuster PA: Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 2298-303.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2006; 20: 928-31.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onsent of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 2007; 32: 381-6.

Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008; 5: 21.

Takanami Y, Iwane H, Kawai Y, Shimomitsu T. Vitamin E supplementation and endurance exercise: Are there benefits? Sports Med. 2000; 29: 73-83.

Tessier F, Margaritis I, Richard MJ, Moynot C, Marconnet P: Selenium and training effects on the glutathione system and aerobic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995, 27: 390-6.

Turcotte L. Role of fats in exercise. Types and quality. Clin Sports Med. 1999; 18: 485-498.

Vecchiet L, Di Lisa F, Pieralisi G, et al. Influence of L-carnitine administration on maximal physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1990; 61: 486-90.

Venkatraman JT, Leddy J, Pendergast D: Dietary fats and immune status in athletes: clinical implications. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000, 32(7 Suppl): S389-95.

Villani RG, Gannon J, Self M, Rich PA: L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000; 10: 199-207.

Volek JS, Rawson ES. Scientific basis and practical aspects of creatine supplementation for athletes. Nutrition. 2004; 20: 609- 614.

Volpe S. Vitamins, minerals and exercise. In: Dunford M, ed. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association; 2006: 61- 63.

Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II: Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr 2001, 20(4): 293-306.

Wagner DR: Hyperhydrating with glycerol: Implications for athletic performance. J Am Diet Assoc 1999; 99: 207-212.

Walberg-Rankin J: Dietary carbohydrate as an ergogenic aid for prolonged and brief competition in sport. Int J Sports Nutr 1995; 5 (Suppl): S13-S28.

Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. Glutamine, exercise and immune function. Links and possible mechanisms. Sports Med 1998; 26: 177-91.

Watson TA, MacDonald-Wicks LK, Garg ML. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005; 15: 131-146.

Wee SL, Williams C, Gray S, Horabin J. Influence of high and low glycemic index meals on endurance running capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: 393-399.

Wee SL, Williams C, Tsintzas K, Boobis L. Ingestion of a high-glycemic index meal increases muscle glycogen storage at rest but augments its utilization during subsequent exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005; 99: 707-714.

Whiting SJ, Barabash WA. Dietary Reference Intakes for the micronutrients: Considerations for physical activity. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006; 31: 80-85.

Willis KS, Peterson NJ, Larson-Meyer DE. Should we be concerned about the vitamin D status of athletes? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008; 18: 204-224.

Woolf K, Manore MM. B-vitamins and exercise: Does exercise alter requirements? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006; 16: 453-484.

World Antidoping Agency, WADA Verbotsliste 2015: „The World Antidoping Code 2015“ verfügbar unter https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/wada-2015-prohibited-list-en.pdf (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

World Antidoping Agency, WADA die Verbotsliste 2016: „The World Antidoping Code 2016“ verfügbar unter https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/wada-2016-prohibited-list-en.pdf (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Wu G, Meininger CJ. Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function. J Nutr 2000; 130: 2626-9.

Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: H462-8.

Zemel MB: Role of dietary calcium and dairy products in modulating adiposity. Lipids 2003, 38:139-46.

Pharmabrain Logo

European Union Trademark no. 006894216
US Patent and Trademark Office reg. no. 3,705,613
International Registration 1460744
All rights reserved.

Wir sind Pharmabrain.

Pharmabrain GmbH – Wir trainieren Ihren Erfolg
Gesundheitskommunikation, Teamentwicklung, Projektmanagement


Wissenschaftliche Exzellenz, praktische Orientierung, Implementierung


Unsere Enterprise Lösungen



Pharmabrain GmbH
Telefon: +49-30-28091515
E-Mail: support@pharmabrain.org

Research and Training Center

Schumannstr. 7b
D-10117 Berlin


Schumannstr. 7a
D-10117 Berlin