• Es befinden sich keine Produkte im Warenkorb.


Literatur und weiterführende Links (FOOD 05-09)


Literaturliste zu Vitamine B1

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. Pediatrics 2001; 108:776.

Arora S, Lidor A, Abularrage CJ, et al: Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation in the Presence of Hyperglycemia. Ann VascSurg 2006; 20:653-8.

August, D, Teitelbaum, D, Albina, J, et al. Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients: Section VII: Normal Requirements – Pediatrics. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2002 26(1): 25-32.

Bakker SJ: Low Thiamine Intake and Risk of Cataract. Ophthalmology 2001; 108:1167.

Bayard, M, McIntyre, J, Hill, K, et al. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. AmFam Physician 2004; 69:1443.

Bender DA. Optimum nutrition: thiamin, biotin and pantothenate. ProcNutr Soc. 1999;58(2):427-433.

Boros LG, Brandes JL, Lee WN, et al. Thiamine supplementation to cancer patients: a double edged sword. Anticancer Res. 1998;18(1B):595-602.

Carney MW. Vitamin Deficiency and Mental Symptoms. Br J Psychiatry. Jun1990;156:878-82.

Comin-Anduix B, Boren J, Martinez S, et al: The Effect of Thiamine Supplementation on Tumour Proliferation. A Metabolic Control Analysis Study. Eur J Biochem 2001; 268:4177-82.

Comin-Anduix B, Boren J, Martinez S, et al. The effect of thiamine supplementation on tumour proliferation. A metabolic control analysis study. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268(15):4177-4182.

Cook CC, et al. B Vitamin Deficiency and Neuropsychiatric Syndromes in Alcohol Misuse. Alcohol Alcohol. Aug1998;33(4):317-36.

Crespi F, et al. Sleep and Indolamine Alterations Induced by Thiamine Deficiency. Brain Res. Sep1982;248(2):275-83.

Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):450-456.

Day E, Bentham P, Callaghan R, et al: Thiamine for Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in People at Risk From Alcohol Abuse. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2004; (1):CD004033.

Delis D, Michelakakis H, Katsarou E, et al: Thiamin-Responsive Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Seizures After 7 Years of Satisfactory Metabolic Control. J Inherit Metab Dis, 2001, 24(6):683-4.

Diamond, I, Messing, R. Neurologic Effects of Alcoholism. West J Med 1994; 161:279. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

Doyon, S, Roberts, JR. Reappraisal of the “Coma Cocktail”: Dextrose, Flumazenil, Naloxone, and Thiamine. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1994; 12:301.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Thiamin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:58-86.

Glaso M, Nordbo G, Diep L, Bohmer T. Reduced concentrations of several vitamins in normal weight patients with late-onset dementia of the Alzheimer type without vascular disease. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(5):407-413.

Heroux M, RaghavendraRao VL, Lavoie J, Richardson JS, Butterworth RF. Alterations of thiamine phosphorylation and of thiamine-dependent enzymes in Alzheimer’s disease. Metab Brain Dis. 1996;11(1):81-88.

Hung SC, Hung SH, Tarng DC, Yang WC, Chen TW, Huang TP. Thiamine deficiency and unexplained encephalopathy in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(5):941-947.

Ishibashi S, Yokota T, Shiojiri T, et al. Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency? J NeurolNeurosurg Psychiatry. May2003;74(5):674-6.

Iwase K, Higaki J, Yoon HE, et al: Reduced Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Levels Following Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer. Gastric Cancer, 2002, 5(2):77-82.

Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(4):517-526.

Kish SJ. Brain energy metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer’s disease: alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and cytochrome oxidase. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;826:218-228.

Leslie D, Gheorghiade M. Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure? Am Heart J. 1996;131(6):1248-1250.

Mandel H, et al. Thiamine-dependent Beriberi in the Thiamine-responsive Anemia Syndrome. N Engl J Med. Sep 1984;311(13):836-38.

Mastrogiacoma F, Bettendorff L, Grisar T, Kish SJ. Brain thiamine, its phosphate esters, and its metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol. 1996;39(5):585-591.

Meador K, Loring D, Nichols M, et al. Preliminary findings of high-dose thiamine in dementia of Alzheimer’s type. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1993;6(4):222-229.

Mendoza CE, Rodriguez F, and Rosenberg DG: Reversal of Refractory Congestive Heart Failure After Thiamine Supplementation: Report of a Case and Review of Literature. J CardiovascPharmacolTher, 2003, 8(4):313-6.

Mimori Y, Katsuoka H, Nakamura S. Thiamine therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. MetabBrainDis. 1996;11(1):89-94.

Mirtallo, J, Canada, T, Johnson, D, et al. Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition. Task Force for the Revision of Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2004; 28:39.

Muri RM, Von Overbeck J, Furrer J, Ballmer PE. Thiamin deficiency in HIV-positive patients: evaluation by erythrocyte transketolase activity and thiamin pyrophosphate effect. ClinNutr. 1999;18(6):375-378.

Naito E, Ito M, Yokota I, et al: Diagnosis and Molecular Analysis of Three Male Patients With Thiamine-Responsive Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency. J NeurolSci, 2002, 201(1-2):33-7.

Proebstle, TM, Gall, H, Jugert, FK. Specific IgE and IgG Serum Antibodies to Thiamine Associated With Anaphylactic Reaction. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1995; 95(5 Pt 1):1059.

Reuler, JB, Girard, DE, Cooney, TG. Current Concepts: Wernicke’s Encephalopathy. N Engl J Med 1985; 312:1035.

Rodriguez-Martin JL, Qizilbash N, Lopez-Arrieta JM. Thiamine for Alzheimer’s disease (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;2:CD001498.

Saito N, et al. Blood Thiamine Levels in Outpatients with Diabetes Mellitus. J NutrSciVitaminol.(Tokyo). Dec1987;33(6):421-30.

Schumann K. Interactions between drugs and vitamins at advanced age. Int J VitamNutr Res. 1999;69(3):173-178.

Shimon I, Almog S, Vered Z, et al. Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy. Am J Med. 1995;98(5):485-490.

Skelton WP, 3rd, et al. Thiamine Deficiency Neuropathy. It’s Still Common Today. Postgrad Med. Jun1989; 85(8):301-06.

Stephen, JM, Grant, R, Veh, CS. Anaphylaxis From Administration of Intravenous Thiamine. Am J Emerg Med 1992; 10:61.

Suter PM, Haller J, Hany A, Vetter W. Diuretic use: a risk for subclinical thiamine deficiency in elderly patients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2000;4(2):69-71.

Tanphaichitr V. Thiamin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:381-389.

Thomson, AD, Cook, CC, Touquet, R, et al. The Royal College of Physicians Report on Alcohol: Guidelines for Managing Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in the Accident and Emergency Department. Alcohol, Alcohol, 2002, 37:513.

Todd K, Butterworth RF. Mechanisms of selective neuronal cell death due to thiamine deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;893:404-411.

Van Haecke, P, Ramaekers, D, Vanderwegen, L, et al. Thiamine-Induced Anaphylactic Shock. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13:371.

Wilcox CS. Do diuretics cause thiamine deficiency? J Lab Clin Med. 1999;134(3):192-193.

Wilkinson TJ, Hanger HC, George PM, Sainsbury R. Is thiamine deficiency in elderly people related to age or co-morbidity? Age Ageing. 2000;29(2):111-116.

Wrenn, KD, Murphy, F, Slovis, CM. A Toxicity Study of Parenteral Thiamine Hydrochloride. Ann Emerg Med 1989; 18:867.

Zenuk C, Healey J, Donnelly J, Vaillancourt R, Almalki Y, Smith S. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure patients receiving long term furosemide therapy. Can J ClinPharmacol. 2003;10(4):184-188.


Literaturliste zu Vitamin B2

Akompong T, Ghori N, and Haldar K: In vitro Activity of Riboflavin Against the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000; 44:88-96.

Blumberg J. Nutritional needs of seniors. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16:517-523.

Boehnke C, Reuter U, Flach U, Schuh-Hofer S, Einhaupl KM, Arnold G. High-dose riboflavin treatment is efficacious in migraine prophylaxis: an open study in a tertiary care centre. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11:475-477.

Bohles H. Antioxidative vitamins in prematurely and maturely born infants. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997;67:321-328.

Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999

Crombleholme WR. Obstetrics. In: Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, eds. Current Medical Treatment and Diagnosis. 37th ed. Stamford: Appleton and Lange; 1998:731-734.

Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2000;107:450-456.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Riboflavin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:87-122.

Hankinson SE, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, et al: Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study. BMJ 1992;305:335-339.

Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001

Jacques PF, Bostom AG, Wilson PW, Rich S, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J. Determinants of plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:613-621.

Jacques PF, Kalmbach R, Bagley PJ, et al. The relationship between riboflavin and plasma total homocysteine in the Framingham Offspring cohort is influenced by folate status and the C677T transition in the methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase gene. J Nutr. 2002;132:283-288.

Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:517-526.

Leske MC, Wu SY, Hyman L, et al. Biochemical factors in the lens opacities. Case-control study. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1113-1119.

Lopez-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM, Quintas ME, et al. The influence of vitamin B2 intake on the activation coefficient of erythrocyte glutationreductase in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6:60-62.

Lowik MR, van den Berg H, Kistemaker C, Brants HA, Brussaard JH. Interrelationships between riboflavin and vitamin B6 among elderly people (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System). Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1994;64:198-203.

Madigan SM, Tracey F, McNulty H, et al. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am J ClinNutr. 1998;68:389-395.

Maizels M, Blumenfeld A, Burchette R. A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache. 2004;44:885-890.

Makola D, Ash DM, Tatala SR, et al: A Micronutrient-Fortified Beverage Prevents Iron Deficiency, Reduces Anemia and Improves the Hemoglobin Concentration of Pregnant Tanzanian Women. J Nutr, 2003, 133:1339-46.

Mares-Perlman JA, Brady WE, Klein BE, et al. Diet and nuclear lens opacities. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:322-334.

McCormick DB. Riboflavin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:391-399.

McCormick DB. Two interconnected B vitamins: riboflavin and pyridoxine. Physiol Rev. 1989;69:1170-1198.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration, Chief Editors: Ulbricht C, Basch E, Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference – Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews, USA: Elsevier/Mosby, 2005.

Neugebauer J, Zanre Y, Wacker J. Riboflavin supplementation and preeclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;93:136-137.

Powers HJ. Current knowledge concerning optimum nutritional status of riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:435-440.

Powers HJ. Riboflavin-iron interactions with particular emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract. Proc Nutr Soc. 1995;54:509-517.

Rivlin RS. Riboflavin. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:167-173.

Russell RM, Suter PM. Vitamin requirements of elderly people: an update. Am J ClinNutr. 1993;58:4-14

Sandor PS, Afra J, Ambrosini A, Schoenen J. Prophylactic treatment of migraine with beta-blockers and riboflavin: differential effects on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials. Headache. 2000;40:30-35.

Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 1998;50:466-470.

Siassi F and Ghadirian P: Riboflavin Deficiency and Esophageal Cancer: A Case Control-Household Study in the Caspian Littoral of Iran. Cancer Detect Prev, 2005, 29:464-9.

Soares MJ, Satyanarayana K, Bamji MS, Jacob CM, Ramana YV, Rao SS. The effect of exercise on the riboflavin status of adult men. Br J Nutr. 1993;69:541-551.

Sugiyama M. Role of physiological antioxidants in chromium(VI)-induced cellular injury. Free RadicBiol Med. 1992;12:397-407.

Wacker J, Fruhauf J, Schulz M, Chiwora FM, Volz J, Becker K. Riboflavin deficiency and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:38-44.

Wacker J, Fruhauf J, Schulz M, et al: Riboflavin Deficiency and Preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol, 2000, 96:38-44.

Yoon HR, Hahn SH, Ahn YM, et al: Therapeutic Trial in the First Three Asian Cases of Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy: Response to Riboflavin. J Inherit Metab Dis, 2001, 24:870-3.

Zempleni J, Galloway JR, McCormick DB. Pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered riboflavin in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:54-66.


Literaturliste zu Vitamine B3

Alderman JD, et al. Effect of a Modified, Well-tolerated Niacin Regimen on Serum Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and the Cholesterol to High Density Lipoprotein Ratio. Am J Cardiol. 1989;64:725-29.

Barakat MR, Metelitsina TI, DuPont JC, et al: Effect of Niacin on Retinal Vascular Diameter in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Curr Eye Res 2006; 31:629-34.

Birjmohun RS, Hutten BA, Kastelein JJ, et al: Increasing HDL Cholesterol With Extended-Release Nicotinic Acid: From Promise to Practice. Neth J Med 2004; 62:229-34.

Bissett DL, Oblong JE, and Berge CA: Niacinamide: A B Vitamin That Improves Aging Facial Skin Appearance. DermatolSurg 2005; 31:860-5.

Boyonoski AC, Spronck JC, Gallacher LM, et al. Niacin deficiency decreases bone marrow poly(ADP-ribose) and the latency of ethylnitrosourea-induced carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr. 2002;132:108-114

Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999

Brown BG, Cheung MC, Lee AC, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Antioxidant vitamins and lipid therapy: end of a long romance? ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 2002;22:1535-1546.

Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1583-1592.

Brown RR, Ozaki Y, Datta SP, Borden EC, Sondel PM, Malone DG. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, auto-immune diseases and AIDS. AdvExp Med Biol. 1991;294:425-435.

Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen-year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin. J Am CollCardiol. 1986;8:1245-1255.

Cervantes-Laurean D, McElvaney NG, Moss J. Niacin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:401-411.

Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Albers JJ, Brown BG. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 2001;21:1320-1326.

Draelos ZD, Ertel K, and Berge C: Niacinamide-Containing Facial Moisturizer Improves Skin Barrier and Benefits Subjects With Rosacea. Cutis 2005; 76:135-41.

Draelos ZD, Matsubara A, and Smiles K: The Effect of 2% Niacinamide on Facial Sebum Production. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2006; 8:96-101.

Elam MB, Hunninghake DB, Davis KB, et al: Effect of Niacin on Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels and Glycemic Control in Patients With Diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Disease: The ADMIT Study: A Randomized Trial. Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial. JAMA 2000; 284:1263-70.

Flodin N. Pharmacology of micronutrients. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.; 1988

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Niacin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:123-149.

Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Negri E, et al. Role of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals in the aetiology of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Int J Cancer. 2000;86:626-631.

Franceschini G, et al. Pharmacological Control of Hypertriglyceridemia. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1993;7:297-302.

Fu CS, Swendseid ME, Jacob RA, McKee RW. Biochemical markers for assessment of niacin status in young men: levels of erythrocyte niacin coenzymes and plasma tryptophan. J Nutr. 1989;119:1949-1955.

Gensler HL, Williams T, Huang AC, Jacobson EL. Oral niacin prevents photocarcinogenesis and photoimmunosuppression in mice. Nutr Cancer 1999;34:36-41.

Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al: Multiple-Dose Efficacy and Safety of an Extended-Release Form of Niacin in the Management of Hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000; 85:1100-5.

Goldberg AC: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies on the Effects of Extended-Release Niacin in Women. Am J Cardiol 2004; 94:121-4.

Greenbaum CJ, Kahn SE, Palmer JP: Nicotinamide’s effects on glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for IDDM. Diabetes. 1996;45:1631-1634.

Gröber U. (2002): Orthomolekulare Medizin – ein Leitfaden für Apotheker und Ärzte, 2. überarb. und erw. Auflage

Gregory JF, 3rd. Nutritional Properties and significance of vitamin glycosides. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998;18:277-296.

Guyton JR, Capuzzi DM: Treatment of hyperlipidemia with combined niacin-statin regimens. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82:82U-84U.

Hageman GJ, Stierum RH, van Herwijnen MH, van der Veer MS, Kleinjans JC: Nicotinic acid supplementation: effects on niacin status, cytogenetic damage, and poly(ADP-ribosylation) in lymphocytes of smokers. Nutr Cancer. 1998;32:113-120.

Hageman GJ, Stierum RH. Niacin, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic stability. Mutat Res. 2001;475:45-56.

Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001

Jacob R, Swenseid M. Niacin. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C: ILSI Press; 1996:185-190.

Jacobson EL, Jacobson MK. Tissue NAD as a biochemical measure of niacin status in humans. Methods Enzymol. 1997;280:221-230.

Jacobson EL, Shieh WM, Huang AC. Mapping the role of NAD metabolism in prevention and treatment of carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999;193:69-74.

Jacobson EL. Niacin deficiency and cancer in women. J Am CollNutr. 1993;12:412-416.

Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL. Discovering new ADP-ribose polymer cycles: protecting the genome and more. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999;24:415-417.

Jonas WB, Rapoza CP, Blair WF. The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Inflamm Res 1996 Jul;45:330-4.

Kashyap ML, McGovern ME, Berra K, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of a once-daily niacin/lovastatin formulation for patients with dyslipidemia. Am J Cardiol. 2002;89:672-678.

Knopp RH. Drug treatment of lipid disorders. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:498-511.

Knopp RH. Evaluating niacin in its various forms. Am J Cardiol. 2000;86:51L-56L.

Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, et al. The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study: an attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. DENIS Group. Diabetes. 1998;47:980-984.

McKenney J: New Perspectives on the Use of Niacin in the Treatment of Lipid Disorders. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:697-705.

Metelitsina TI, Grunwald JE, DuPont JC, et al: Effect of Niacin on the Choroidal Circulation of Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol 2004; 88:1568-72 (27.10.2020)

Murray MF, Langan M, MacGregor RR. Increased plasma tryptophan in HIV-infected patients treated with pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide. Nutrition. 2001;17:654-656.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration, Chief Editors: Ulbricht C, Basch E, Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference – Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews, USA: Elsevier/Mosby, 2005

Negri E, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al. Selected micronutrients and oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2000;86:122-127.

O’Hara J, et al. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Inositol Nicotinate (Hexopal) in Intermittent Claudication: A Controlled Trial. Br J Clin Pract.1988;42:377-83.

Osmond H, Hoffer A. Massive Niacin Treatment in Schizophrenia: Review of a Nine-year Study. Lancet. 1962;1:316-20.

Park YK, Sempos CT, Barton CN, Vanderveen JE, Yetley EA. Effectiveness of food fortification in the United States: the case of pellagra. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:727-738.

Prousky J and Seely D: The Treatment of Migraines and Tension-Type Headaches With Intravenous and Oral Niacin (Nicotinic Acid): Systematic Review of the Literature. Nutr J 2005; 4:3.

Ryan MJ Jr, Gibson J, Simmons P, Stanek E. Effectiveness of aggressive management of dyslipidemia in a collaborative-care practice model. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91:1427-31.

Sampathkumar K, Selvam M, Sooraj YS, et al: Extended Release Nicotinic Acid – A Novel Oral Agent for Phosphate Control. IntUrolNephrol 2006; 38:171-4.

Schatz DA, Bingley PJ. Update on major trials for the prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus: the American Diabetes Prevention Trial (DPT-1) and the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial (ENDIT). J PediatrEndocrinolMetab. 2001;14 Suppl 1:619-622.

Shalita AR, et al. Topical Nicotinamide Compared with Clindamycin Gel in the Treatment of Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:434-37.

Sperduto RD, et al. The Linxian Cataract Studies. Two Nutrition Intervention Trials. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:1246-53.

Sunderland GT, et al. A Double-blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial of Hexopal in Primary Raynaud’s Disease. ClinRheumatol. 1988;7:46-49.

Tang AM, Graham NM, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143:1244-1256.

Wink J, Giacoppe G, King J. Effect of very-low-dose niacin on high-density lipoprotein in patients undergoing long-term statin therapy. Am Heart J. 2002;143:514-518.


Literaturliste zu Vitamin B6

Balk EM, Raman G, Tatsioni A, Chung M, Lau J, Rosenberg IH: Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:21-30.

Bender DA: Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B6. Br J Nutr 1999;81:7-20.

Bernstein AL: Vitamin B6 in clinical neurology. Ann N Y AcadSci 1990;585:250-260.

Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG: A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-1057.

Bryan J, Calvaresi E, Hughes D: Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. J Nutr 2002;132:1345-1356.

Cheng CH, Chang SJ, Lee BJ, et al: Vitamin B6 Supplementation Increases Immune Responses in Critically Ill Patients. Eur J ClinNutr 2006; 60:1207-1213.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ: A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C and B6, and the risk of kidney stones in men. J Urol 1996;155:1847-1851.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ: Intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. J Am SocNephrol 1999;10:840-845.

Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, McGovern PG, et al: Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 1998; 98:204-210.

Friso S, Girelli D, Martinelli N, et al: Low plasma vitamin B-6 concentrations and modulation of coronary artery disease risk. Am J ClinNutr 2004;79:992-998.

Gupta VK, Mishra D, Mathur I, et al: Pyridoxine-Dependent Seizures: A Case Report and a Critical Review of the Literature. J Paediatr Child Health 2001; 37:592-596.

Hanley DF: The Challenge of Stroke Prevention. JAMA 2004; 291:621-622.

Hansen CM, Shultz TD, Kwak HK, Memon HS, Leklem JE: Assessment of vitamin B-6 status in young women consuming a controlled diet containing four levels of vitamin B-6 provides an estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance. J Nutr 2001;131:1777-1786.

Hartman TJ, Woodson K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al: Association of the B-Vitamins Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate (B6), B(12), and Folate With Lung Cancer Risk in Older Men. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153:688-694.

Heller T, Hochstetter V, Basler M, et al: Vitamin B6-Sensitive Hereditary Sideroblastic Anemia. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2004; 129:141-144.

Jewell D, Young G: Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD000145.

Jones CL, et al: Pyridoxine Deficiency: A New Factor in Diabetic Neuropathy. J Am Podiatry Assoc 1978;68 : 646-53.

Kashanian M, Mazinani R, and Jalalmanesh S: Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Therapy for Premenstrual Syndrome. Int J GynaecolObstet 2007; 96:43-44.

Keniston RC, Nathan PA, Leklem JE, Lockwood RS: Vitamin B6, vitamin C, and carpal tunnel syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 441 adults. J Occup Environ Med 1997;39:949-959.

Kremer JM, et al: Nutrient Intake of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis is Deficient in Pyridoxine, Zinc, Copper, and Magnesium. J Rheumatol. Jun1996;23:990-994.

Kretsch MJ, Sauberlich HE, Skala JH, Johnson HL: Vitamin B-6 requirement and status assessment: young women fed a depletion diet followed by a plant- or animal-protein diet with graded amounts of vitamin B-6. Am J ClinNutr 1995;61:1091-1101.

Kruman II, Kumaravel TS, Lohani A, et al: Folic Acid Deficiency and Homocysteine Impair DNA Repair in Hippocampal Neurons and Sensitize Them to Amyloid Toxicity in Experimental Models of Alzheimer’s Disease. J Neurosci 2002; 22:1752-1762.

Lerner V, Bergman J, Statsenko N, et al: Vitamin B6 Treatment in Acute Neuroleptic-Induced Akathisia: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Clin Psychiatry 2004; 65:1550-1554.

Lerner V, Miodownik C, Kaptsan A, et al: Vitamin B6 in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158:1511-1514.

Lumeng L, Li TK: Vitamin B6 metabolism in chronic alcohol abuse. Pyridoxal phosphate levels in plasma and the effects of acetaldehyde on pyridoxal phosphate synthesis and degradation in human erythrocytes. J Clin Invest 1974; 53:693-704.

Mackey AD, Davis SR, Gregory JF, 3rd.: Vitamin B6. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:452-461.

McCormick DB. Vitamin B6. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Vol. I. Washington, D.C.: International Life Sciences Institute; 2006:269-277.

McKinley MC, McNulty H, McPartlin J, et al: Low-Dose Vitamin B6 Effectively Lowers Fasting Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Elderly Persons Who Are Folate and Riboflavin Replete. Am J ClinNutr 2001; 73:759-764.

Meydani SN, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russell RM, Sahyoun N, Morrow FD, Gershoff SN: Vitamin B-6 deficiency impairs interleukin 2 production and lymphocyte proliferation in elderly adults. Am J ClinNutr 1991;53:1275-1280.

Miodownik C, Lerner V, Vishne T, et al: High-Dose Vitamin B6 Decreases Homocysteine Serum Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders: A Preliminary Study. Clin Neuropharmacol 2007; 30:13-17.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration, Chief Editors: Ulbricht C, Basch E, Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference – Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews, USA: Elsevier/Mosby, 2005

Reynolds RD, Natta CL: Depressed Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Concentrations in Adult Asthmatics. Am J Clin Nut 1985;41:684-688.

Riggs KM, Spiro A, Tucker K, Rush D: Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am J ClinNutr 1996; 63:306-314.

Rimland B, et al: The Effect of High Doses of Vitamin B6 on Autistic Children: a Double-blind Crossover Study. Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:472-475.

Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al: Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 1998; 279:359-364.

Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H, et al: Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. European COMAC Group. Circulation 1998;97 : 437-443.

Robinson K, Mayer EL, Miller DP, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia and low pyridoxal phosphate. Common and independent reversible risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circulation 1995;92:2825-2830.

Sahakian V, Rouse D, Sipes S, Rose N, Niebyl J: Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:33-36.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, et al : Effect of Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy With Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin B6 on Clinical Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Swiss Heart Study: a Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2002; 288:973-979.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al : Decreased Rate of Coronary Restenosis After Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine Levels. N Engl J Med 2001; 34:1593-1600.

Selhub J, Bagley LC, Miller J, Rosenberg IH: B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J ClinNutr 2000;71:614S-620S.

Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, et al: Plasma Homocysteine as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:476-483.

Talbott MC, Miller LT, Kerkvliet NI: Pyridoxine supplementation: effect on lymphocyte responses in elderly persons. Am J ClinNutr 1987;46:659-664.

Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, et al: Lowering Homocysteine in Patients With Ischemic Stroke to Prevent Recurrent Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, and Death: The Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2004; 291:565-575.

Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJ, van der Merwe A, Becker PJ, Delport R, Potgieter HC: Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. J Nutr 1994;124:1927-1933.

Ulvi H, Mungen B, Yakinci C, et al: Pyridoxine-Dependent Seizures: Long-Term Follow-Up of Two Cases With Clinical and MRI Findings, and Pyridoxine Treatment. J Trop Pediatr 2002; 48:303-306.

Villegas-Salas E, Ponce de Leon R, Juarez-Perez MA, Grubb GS: Effect of vitamin B6 on the side effects of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive. Contraception 1997;55:245-248.

Vinik AI: Diabetic neuropathy: pathogenesis and therapy. Am J Med 1999; 107:17S-26S.

Vutyavanich T, Wongtrangan S, Ruangsri R: Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173: 881-884.

Weir MR, Keniston RC, Enriquez JI, McNamee GA: Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to theophylline. Ann Allergy 1990; 65:59-62.

Williams AL, Cotter A, Sabina A, Girard C, Goodman J, Katz DL: The role for vitamin B-6 as treatment for depression: a systematic review. FamPract 2005; 22:532-537.

Woodside JV, Yarnell JW, McMaster D, Young IS, Harmon DL, McCrum EE, et al: Effect of B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia: a double-blind, randomized, factorial-design, controlled trial. Am J ClinNutr 1998;67:858-866.

Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O’Brien PM: Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. Bmj 1999;318:1375-1381.


Literaturliste zu Folsäure

Neural Tube Defects, ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. Number 44, ObstetGynecol 2003; 102:203-13.

Apeland T, Mansoor MA, Strandjord RE: Antiepileptic drugs as independent predictors of plasma total homocysteine levels. Epilepsy Res 2001;47:27-35.

Auer J, et al: Homocysteine and cardiovascular risk. Wien Med Wochenschr 2001;151:25-8.

Bailey LB, Gregory JF: 3rd. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr 1999;129:779-782.

Bailey LB, Gregory JF: 3rd. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase and other enzymes: metabolic significance, risks and impact on folate requirement. J Nutr 1999;129:919-922.

Bailey LB: Dietary reference intakes for folate: the debut of dietary folate equivalents. Nutr Rev 1998;56:294-299.

Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, et al: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology Practice Guidelines on the Treatment of Methanol Poisoning. J ToxicolClinToxicol 2002; 40:415-46.

Bazzano LA, Reynolds K, Holder KN, He J: Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2006;296:2720-2726.

Bønaa KH, Njølstad I, et al: Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1578–88.

Botto LD, Olney RS, Erickson JD: Vitamin supplements and the risk for congenital anomalies other than neural tube defects. Amer J Med Genet (Semin. Med. Genet) 2004; 125 : 12–21.

Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG: A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-1057.

Brattstrom LE, et al: Folic Acid – An Innocuous Means to Reduce plasma Homocysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1988;48:215-221.

Brattstrom LE, et al: Folic Acid Responsive Postmenopausal Homocysteinemia. Metabolism 1985;34:1073-1077.

Brouwer IA, van Dusseldorp M, Thomas CM, Duran M, Hautvast JG, Eskes TK, et al: Low-dose folic acid supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:99-104.

Buckley DI, et al: Dietary Micronutrients and Cervical Dysplasia in Southwestern American Indian Women. Nutr Cancer 1992;17:179-185.

Calvaresi E, Bryan J: B vitamins, cognition, and aging: a review. J Gerontol B PsycholSciSoc Sci 2001;56:S.327-39.

Choi SW, Mason JB: Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. J Nutr 2000;130:129-132.

Clarke R, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Armitage J: Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia. CurrOpinClinNutrMetab Care 2007;10:32-39.

Cole BF, Baron JA, et al: Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. JAMA 2007; 297:2351–2359.

Cravo ML, Pinto AG, Chaves P, et al: Effect of folate supplementation on DNA methylation of rectal mucosa in patients with colonic adenomas: correlation with nutrient intake. Clin Nutr 1998;17:45-49.

Czeisel AE: The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?. Int J Med Sci 2004; 1: 50–61.

Dierkes J, Westphal S, Kunstmann S, Banditt P, Lossner A, Luley C: Vitamin supplementation can markedly reduce the homocysteine elevation induced by fenofibrate. Atherosclerosis 2001;158:161-164.

Durga J, van Boxtel MP, et al: Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 369:208–216.

Durga J, Verhoef P, et al: Effects of folic acid supplementation on hearing in older adults. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 1–9.

Ebly EM, Schaefer JP, Campbell NR, Hogan DB: Folate status, vascular disease and cognition in elderly Canadians. Age Ageing 1998;27:485-491.

Eichholzer M. Tönz, O. Zimmermann R: Folic acid: a public-health challenge. Lancet 2006; 367: 1352–1361.

Gerhard GT, Duell PB: Homocysteine and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 1999;10:417-428.

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC: Alcohol, low-methionine–low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:265-273.

Hope-2 Investigators: Homocystein lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1567–1577.

Kauwell GP, Wilsky CE, Cerda JJ, et al: Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase mutation (677C–>T) negatively influences plasma homocysteine response to marginal folate intake in elderly women. Metabolism 2000;49:1440-1443.

Kim YI, Baik HW, Fawaz K, et al: Effects of folate supplementation on two provisional molecular markers of colon cancer: a prospective, randomized trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:184-195.

Kim YI: Does a high folate intake increase the risk of breast cancer?. Nutr Rev 2006;64:468-475.

Landgren F, Israelsson B, Lindgren A, Hultberg B, Andersson A, Brattstrom L: Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Intern Med 1995;237:381-8.

Lange H, Suryapranata H, De Luca G, et al: Folate Therapy and In-Stent Restenosis After Coronary Stenting. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:2673-2681.

Lentz SR, Piegors DJ, Malinow MR, Heistad DD: Supplementation of atherogenic diet with B vitamins does not prevent atherosclerosis or vascular dysfunction in monkeys. Circulation 2001;103:1006-1011

Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, et al: Secondary Prevention With Folic Acid: Effects on Clinical Outcomes. J Am CollCardiol 2003;41:2105-2113.

Luchsinger J, Tang M-X, et al: Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol 2007; 64: 86–92.

Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, et al: Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase polymorphism, dietary interactions, and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1997;57:1098-1102.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al: Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol 2005;62:641-645.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Schneider JA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Aggarwal NT: Dietary folate and vitamins B-12 and B-6 not associated with incident Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9:435-443.

Pack ARC: Folate Mouthwash: Effects on Established Gingivitis in Periodontal Patients. J Clin Periodontal 1984;11:619-628.

Procter A: Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Br J Psychiatry 1991;159:271-272.

Rohan TE, Jain MG, Howe GR, Miller AB: Dietary folate consumption and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:266-269.

Ross JA, Blair CK, et al: Periconceptionalvitamin use and leukaemia risk in children with Down Syndrome. Cancer 2005; 104: 405–10.

Sanjoaquin MA, Allen N, Couto E, Roddam AW, Key TJ: Folate intake and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analytical approach. Int J Cancer 2005;113:825-828.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM: Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic Acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin b6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the swiss heart study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:973-979.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, Flammer Y, Lange H, Eberli FR, et al: Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-1600.

Scholl TO, Johnson WG: Folic acid: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1295S-1303S.

Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR, et al: Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2001;12:420-428.

Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, et al: Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:476-483.

Slattery ML, Potter JD, Samowitz W, Schaffer D, Leppert M: Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase, diet, and risk of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:513-518.

Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Smith CD, Riley KP, Markesbery WR: Serum folate and the severity of atrophy of the neocortex in Alzheimer disease: findings from the Nun study. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:993-998.

Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate–United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:362-365.

Stanford JL, et al: Oral folate reduces plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in hemodialysis patients with cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;8:567-571.

Steegers-Theunissen RP: Folate Metabolism and Neural Tube Defects: A Review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995;61:39-48.

Su LJ, Arab L: Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Ann Epidemiol 2001;11:65-72.

Suarez L, Hendricks K, et al: Maternal serum B12 levels and risk for neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population. Ann Epidemiol 2003; 13: 81–88.

Swain RA, et al: The Role of Folic Acid in Deficiency States and Prevention of Disease. J Fam Pract 1997;44:138-144.

Tavani A, et al: Folate and vitamin B6 intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy. EJCN 2004;58:1266-1272.

Terry P, Jain M, Miller AB, Howe GR, Rohan TE: Dietary intake of folic acid and colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of women. Int J Cancer 2002;97:864-867.

Tönz O: Das präventive Potential der Folsäure In: Fünfter Schweiz. Ernährungsbericht. BAG Bern 2005; 597–622.

Tönz O: Ernährung in der Schwangerschaft: Stellenwert von Folsäure und Vitamin B12. Schweiz Zschr Ernährungsmed 2007; 5 : 24–31.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150:626-631.

van Rooij IA, Ocke MC, et al: Periconceptionalfolate intake by supplement and food reduces the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Prev Med 2004; 39: 689–694.

Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Virtanen J, Lakka TA, Salonen JT: Low dietary folate intake is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events. The Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study Circulation 2001;103:2674-2680.

Wald DS, Morris JK, Law M, Wald NJ: Folic acid, homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: judging causality in the face of inconclusive trial evidence. Brit Med J 2006; 333: 1114–1117.

Wang HX, Wahlin A, Basun H, Fastbom J, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L: Vitamin B(12) and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 2001;56:1188-1194.

Wang HX, Wahlin A, Basun H, Fastbom J, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L: Vitamin B(12) and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 2001;56:1188-1194.

Wang X, Qin X, et al: Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 369: 1876–1882.

Weir DG, Molloy AM: Microvascular disease and dementia in the elderly: are they related to hyperhomocysteinemia?. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:859-860.

Wilcox AJ, Lie RT, et al: Folic acid supplement and risk of facial clefts: national population based case-control study. BMJ 2007; 334: 464–467.

Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI, Sanderson JE, Metreweli C, Celermajer DS: Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocystinemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:2002-2006.

Woodside JV, Yarnell JW, McMaster D, Young IS, Harmon DL, McCrum EE, et al: Effect of B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia: a double-blind, randomized, factorial-design, controlled trial. Am J ClinNutr 1998;67:858-866.


Literaturliste zu Vitamin B12

Albert CM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Zaharris E, MacFadyen J, Danielson E, Buring JE, Manson JE. Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 May 7;299:2027-36.

Alpers DH. What is new in vitamin B(12)? Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Mar;21:183-6.

Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:357-377.

Balk EM, Raman G, Tatsioni A, Chung M, Lau J, Rosenberg IH. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:21-30.

Banerjee R, Gherasim C, Padovani D. The tinker, tailor, soldier in intracellular B12 trafficking. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009 ;13:484-91.

Bønaa KH, Njølstad I, Ueland PM, Schirmer H, Tverdal A, Steigen T, Wang H, Nordrehaug JE, Arnesen E, Rasmussen K; NORVIT Trial Investigators. Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1578-88.

Bressa GM. S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) as antidepressant: meta-analysis of clinical studies. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1994;154:7-14.

Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999

Carmel R. Cobalamin (Vitamin B-12). In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:482-497.

Chambers JC, Ueland PM, Obeid OA, et al: Improved Vascular Endothelial Function After Oral B-Vitamins: An Effect Mediated Through Reduced Concentrations of Free Plasma Homocysteine. Circulation 2000; 102:2479-83.

Chen XL and Shi YS: Effect of Vitamin B12 Mixed Solution Inhalation for Acute Radiation-Induced Mucosal Injury. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2006; 26:512-4 .

Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, Albert CM, Manson JE. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women: the Women’s Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:335-41.

Clarke R, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Armitage J. Effects of B-vitamins on plasma homocysteine concentrations and on risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007;10:32-39.

Crowe FL, Skeaff CM, McMahon JA, Williams SM, Green TJ. Lowering plasma homocysteine concentrations of older men and women with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 does not affect the proportion of (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma phosphatidylcholine. J Nutr. 2008;138:551-5.

Ebbing M, Bleie Ø, Ueland PM, Nordrehaug JE, Nilsen DW, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Pedersen EK, Nygård O. Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300:795-804.

Erdman AR. Is hydroxocobalamin safe and effective for smoke inhalation? Searching for guidance in the haze. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:814-6.

Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Joosten LW, et al. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:361-370.

Fenech M. Micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes is related to plasma vitamin B12 and homocysteine. Mutat Res. 1999;428:299-304.

Grasbeck R: Imerslund-Grasbeck Syndrome (Selective Vitamin B12 MalResorption With Proteinuria). Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006;1:17.

Hanley DF: The Challenge of Stroke Prevention. JAMA 2004; 291:621-2.

Homocysteine-lowering trials for prevention of cardiovascular events: a review of the design and power of the large randomized trials. Am Heart J. 2006;151:282-287.

House AA, Eliasziw M, Cattran DC, Churchill DN, Oliver MJ, Fine A, Dresser GK, Spence JD. Effect of B-vitamin therapy on progression of diabetic nephropathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303:1603-9.

Kripke C. Is oral vitamin B12 as effective as intramuscular injection? Am Fam Physician. 2006;73:65

Kumar SS, Chouhan RS, Thakur MS. Trends in analysis of vitamin B12. Anal Biochem. 2010;398:139-49.

Kurt R, Yilmaz Y, Ermis F, Kalayoglu Besisik S, Polat N, Elitok A, Oflaz H, Karan MA. Folic Acid and vitamin B12 supplementation improves coronary flow reserve in elderly subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Med Res. 2010;41:369-72.

Lajous M, Lazcano-Ponce E, Hernandez-Avila M, Willett W, Romieu I. Folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) intake and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:443-448.

Li F, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS. Vitamin B(12) and birth defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;98:166-72.

Lonn E, Yusuf S, Arnold MJ, Sheridan P, Pogue J, Micks M, McQueen MJ, Probstfield J, Fodor G, Held C, Genest J Jr; Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1567-77.

Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, et al: Relation of Higher Folate Intake to Lower Risk of Alzheimer Disease in the Elderly. Arch Neurol 2007; 64:86-92.

McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2764-72.

Moestrup SK. New insights into carrier binding and epithelial uptake of the erythropoietic nutrients cobalamin and folate. Curr Opin Hematol. 2006;13:119-23.

Muda P, Kampus P, Zilmer M, Ristimäe T, Fischer K, Zilmer K, Kairane C, Teesalu R. Effect of antihypertensive treatment with candesartan or amlodipine on glutathione and its redox status, homocysteine and vitamin concentrations in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2005 Jan;23:105-12.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration, Chief Editors: Ulbricht C, Basch E, Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference – Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews, USA: Elsevier/Mosby, 2005

Nourhashemi F, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Andrieu S, et al. Alzheimer disease: protective factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:643S-649S.

Park S, Johnson MA. What is an adequate dose of oral vitamin B12 in older people with poor vitamin B12 status? Nutr Rev. 2006;64:373-8.

Pastore A, De Angelis S, Casciani S, Ruggia R, Di Giovamberardino G, Noce A, Splendiani G, Cortese C, Federici G, Dessi’ M. Effects of folic acid before and after vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients with known MTHFR genotypes. Clin Chem. 2006;52:145-8.

Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Fried LP, Allen RH, Stabler SP. Vitamin B(12) deficiency and depression in physically disabled older women: epidemiologic evidence from the Women’s Health and Aging Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:715-721.

Postuma RB, Espay AJ, Zadikoff C, Suchowersky O, Martin WR, Lafontaine AL, Ranawaya R, Camicioli R, Lang AE. Vitamins and entacapone in levodopa-induced hyperhomocysteinemia: a randomized controlled study. Neurology. 2006;66:1941-3.

Quinlivan EP, McPartlin J, McNulty H, et al. Importance of both folic acid and vitamin B12 in reduction of risk of vascular disease. Lancet. 2002;359(9302):227-228.

Ragsdale SW. Catalysis of methyl group transfers involving tetrahydrofolate and B(12). Vitam Horm. 2008;79:293-324.

Raman G, Tatsioni A, Chung M, Rosenberg IH, Lau J, Lichtenstein AH, Balk EM. Heterogeneity and lack of good quality studies limit association between folate, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and cognitive function. J Nutr. 2007;137:1789-94.

Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F, et al. Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:636-643.

Reynolds E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:949-60.

Scalabrino G. The multi-faceted basis of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) neurotrophism in adult central nervous system: Lessons learned from its deficiency. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;88:203-20.

Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al: Decreased Rate of Coronary Restenosis After Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine Levels. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1593-600.

Shrubsole MJ, Jin F, Dai Q, et al. Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7136-7141.

Stanger O, Fowler B, Piertzik K, Huemer M, Haschke-Becher E, Semmler A, Lorenzl S, Linnebank M. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in neuropsychiatric diseases: review and treatment recommendations. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:1393-412.

Stover PJ. Vitamin B12 and older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13:24-7.

Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH) Collaborative Group, Armitage JM, Bowman L, Clarke RJ, Wallendszus K, Bulbulia R, Rahimi K, Haynes R, Parish S, Sleight P, Peto R, Collins R. Effects of homocysteine-lowering with folic acid plus vitamin B12 vs placebo on mortality and major morbidity in myocardial infarction survivors: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2010;303:2486-94.

Sun Y, Lu CJ, Chien KL, Chen ST, Chen RC. Efficacy of multivitamin supplementation containing vitamins B6 and B12 and folic acid as adjunctive treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor in Alzheimer’s disease: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Taiwanese patients. Clin Ther. 2007;29:2204-14.

Thompson J. Vitamins and minerals 4: overview of folate and the B vitamins. Community Pract. 2006;79:197-8.

Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, et al: Lowering Homocysteine in Patients With Ischemic Stroke to Prevent Recurrent Stroke, Myocardial Infarction, and Death: The Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2004; 291:565-75.

Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I, et al: Folate, Vitamin B12, and Risk of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Prospective, Nested Case-Referent Study of Plasma Concentrations and Dietary Intake. Stroke 2005; 36:1426-31.

Williams AL, Girard C, Jui D, Sabina A, Katz DL. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as treatment for depression: a systematic review. Clin Invest Med. 2005;28:132-139.

Wu K, Helzlsouer KJ, Comstock GW, Hoffman SC, Nadeau MR, Selhub J. A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (B6) and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:209-217.

Zhang SM, Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Manson JE. Effect of combined folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 on cancer risk in women: a randomized trial. JAMA.


Literaturliste zu Pantothensäure

Ames BN, Atamna H, Killilea DW: Mineral and vitamin deficiencies can accelerate the mitochondrial decay of aging. Mol Aspects Med. 2005;26:363-378.

Ames BN: Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1019:406-411.

Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al: Effectiveness of Long-Term Treatment With Pantethine in Patients With Dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986; 8:537-545.

Bays H, Stein EA: Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidaemia–current therapies and future agents. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2003;4:1901-1938.

Begley TP, Kinsland C, Strauss E: The biosynthesis of coenzyme A in bacteria. Vitam Horm 2001;61:157-171.

Bender DA: Optimum nutrition: thiamin, biotin and pantothenate. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:427-433.

Calcium Pantothenate in Arthritic Conditions. A Report From the General Practitioner Research Group. Practitioner 1980; 224:208-211.

Coronel F, Tornero F, Torrente J, et al: Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. Am J Nephrol 1991;11:32-36.

Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, Zammit CM, Richard RC, Castot AC: Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35(4):424-426.

Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O’Brien PJ: Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Chem Biol Interact 2006;163:94-112.

Dmitriev LF: Shortage of lipid-radical cycles in membranes as a possible prime cause of energetic failure in aging and Alzheimer disease. Neurochem Res 2007;32:1278-1291.

Ebner F, Heller A, Rippke F, Tausch I: Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders. Am J Clin Dermatol 2002;3:427-433.

Ellinger S, Stehle P: Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009;12:588-595.

Fry PC, Fox HM, Tao HG: Metabolic response to a pantothenic acid deficient diet in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1976;22:339-346.

Gaddi A, Descovich GC, Noseda G, et al: Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1984;50(1):73-83.

Gordon N: Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2002;6:243-247.

Guillard O, Delmotte JS, Filoche B, et al: Treatment of Constipation With Vitamin B5 or Dexpanthenol. Med Chir Dig 1979; 8:671-674.

Haslam RH, Dalby JT, Rademaker AW: Effects of Megavitamin Therapy on Children With Attention Deficit Disorders. Pediatrics 1984; 74:103-111.

Haslock DI, Wright V: Pantothenic Acid in the Treatment of Osteoarthrosis. Rheumatol Phys Med 1971; 11:10-13.

Hodges RE, Ohlson MA, Bean WB: Pantothenic acid deficiency in man. J Clin Invest 1958;37:1642-1657.

Kelly GS: Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev 1999; 4: 249-265.

Lacroix B, Didier E, Grenier JF: Role of Pantothenic and Ascorbic Acid in Wound Healing Processes: In Vitro Study on Fibroblasts. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1988; 58:407-413.

Leonardi R, Zhang YM, Rock CO, Jackowski S: Coenzyme A: back in action. Prog Lipid Res 2005;44:125-153.

Løkkevik E, Skovlund E, Reitan JB, et al: Skin Treatment With Bepanthen Cream Versus No Cream During Radiotherapy − A Randomized Controlled Trial. Acta Oncol 1996; 35:1021-1026.

Martin W: On Treating Allergic Disorders. Townsend Letter for Doctors 1991; 670-671.

Nice C, Reeves AG, Brinck-Johnsen T, et al: The Effects of Pantothenic Acid on Human Exercise Capacity. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1984; 24:26-29.

Ramakrishna T: Vitamins and brain development. Physiol Res 1999;48:175-187.

Rébeillé F, Ravanel S, Marquet A, Mendel RR, Webb ME, Smith AG, Warren MJ: Roles of vitamins B5, B8, B9, B12 and molybdenum cofactor at cellular and organismal levels. Nat Prod Rep 2007;24:949-962.

Rogovik AL, Vohra S, Goldman RD: Safety considerations and potential interactions of vitamins: should vitamins be considered drugs?. Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:311-324.

Rose RC: Intestinal Resorption of water-soluble vitamins. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1996;212:191-198.

Said HM, Mohammed ZM: Intestinal Resorption of water-soluble vitamins: anupdate. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2006;22:140-146.

Said HM, Ortiz A, McCloud E, Dyer D, Moyer MP, Rubin S: Biotin uptake by human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells: a carrier-mediated process shared with pantothenic acid. Am J Physiol 1998;275:C1365-1371.

Saris WH, Schrijver J, van Erp Baart MA, Brouns F: Adequacy of vitamin supply under maximal sustained workloads: the Tour de France. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1989;30:205-212.

Scalabrino G: Vitamin-regulated cytokines and growth factors in the CNS and elsewhere. J Neurochem 2009;111:1309-1326.

Spector R, Johanson CE: Vitamin transport and homeostasis in mammalian brain: focus on Vitamins B and E. J Neurochem 2007; 103: 425-438.

Spector R: Nutrient transport systems in brain: 40 years of progress. J Neurochem 2009;111:315-320.

Spry C, Kirk K, Saliba KJ: Coenzyme A biosynthesis: an antimicrobial drug target. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2008;32:56-106.

Tahiliani AG, Beinlich CJ: Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam Horm 1991;46:165-228.

Thompson J: Vitamins, minerals and supplements: part two. Community Pract 2005;78:366-368.

van den Berg H: Bioavailability of pantothenic acid. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:S62-263.

Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al: Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur Surg Res 1995;27:158-166.

Watson PE, McDonald BW: The association of maternal diet and dietary supplement intake in pregnant New Zealand women with infant birth weight. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:184-193.

Webb ME, Smith AG, Abell C: Biosynthesis of pantothenate. Nat Prod Rep 2004;21:695-721.

Webster MJ: Physiological and performance responses to supplementation with thiamin and pantothenic acid derivatives. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;77:486-491.

Weimann BI, Hermann D: Studies on wound healing: effects of calcium D-pantothenate on the migration, proliferation and protein synthesis of human dermal fibroblasts in culture. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1999;69:113-119.

Williams MH: Vitamin supplementation and athletic performance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1989;30:163-191.

Wojtczak L, Slyshenkov VS: Protection by pantothenic acid against apoptosis and cell damage by oxygen free radicals–the role of glutathione. Biofactors 2003;17:61-73.


Literaturliste zu Biotin

Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Geohas J, et al: Combination of Chromium and Biotin Improves Coronary Risk Factors in Hypercholesterolemic Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. J Cardiometab Syndr 2007; 2:91-7.

Albarracin CA, Fuqua BC, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008;24:41-51.

Baez-Saldana A, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Revilla-Monsalve C, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:238-243.

Baumgartner ER, Suormala T. Inherited defects of biotin metabolism. Biofactors. 1999;10:287-90.

Bender DA. Optimum nutrition: thiamin, biotin and pantothenate. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:427-33.

Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE Jr. Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. J Nutr. 1999;129:477S-484S.

Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose levels in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1985;447:389-392.

Dakshinamurti K. Biotin–a regulator of gene expression. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:419-23.

Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, Zammit CM, Richard RC, Castot AC. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35:424-426.

El-Hajj TI, Karam PE, Mikati MA. Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease: case report and review of the literature. Neuropediatrics. 2008;39:268-71.

Fernandez-Mejia C. Pharmacological effects of biotin. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:424-7.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Biotin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:374-389.

Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, Finch M, Komorowski JR. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007;333:145-53.

Gravel RA, Narang MA. Molecular genetics of biotin metabolism: old vitamin, new science. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:428-31.

Hassan YI, Zempleni J. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and gene function by biotin. J Nutr. 2006;136:1763-5.

Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis. 1993;51:303-305.

Hymes J, Wolf B. Human biotinidase isn’t just for recycling biotin. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):485S-489S.

Kothapalli N, Camporeale G, Kueh A, et al. Biological functions of biotinylated histones. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:446-448.

Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother. 1990;44:511-514.

León-Del-Río A. Biotin-dependent regulation of gene expression in human cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:432-4.

Maebashi M, Makino Y, Furukawa Y, Ohinata K, Kimura S, Sato T. Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1993;14:211-218.

Mardach R, Zempleni J, Wolf B, et al. Biotin dependency due to a defect in biotin transport. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1617-1623

McMahon RJ. Biotin in metabolism and molecular biology. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002;22:221-39.

Mock D, Henrich C, Carnell N, Mock N, Swift L. Lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase and accumulation of odd-chain fatty acid in plasma and erythrocytes are useful indicators of marginal biotin deficiency small star, filled. J Nutr Biochem. 2002;13:462.

Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:295-299.

Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is common in normal human pregnancy and is highly teratogenic in mice. J Nutr. 2009; 139:154-157.

Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mice and perhaps humans: a review of biotin deficiency during human pregnancy and effects of biotin deficiency on gene expression and enzyme activities in mouse dam and fetus. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:435-7.

Pabuccuoglu A, Aydogdu S, Bas M. Serum biotinidase activity in children with chronic liver disease and its clinical significance. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002;34:59-62.

Pacheco-Alvarez D, Solórzano-Vargas RS, Del Río AL. Biotin in metabolism and its relationship to human disease. Arch Med Res. 2002;33:439-47.

Revilla-Monsalve C, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Islas-Andrade S, Báez-Saldaña A, Palomino-Garibay MA, Hernández-Quiróz PM, Fernandez-Mejia C. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 ;60:182-5.

Rodriguez-Melendez R, Zempleni J. Regulation of gene expression by biotin. J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14:680-90.

Romero-Navarro G, Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, et al. Biotin regulation of pancreatic glucokinase and insulin in primary cultured rat islets and in biotin-deficient rats. Endocrinology. 1999;140:4595-4600.

Said HM, Ortiz A, McCloud E, Dyer D, Moyer MP, Rubin S. Biotin uptake by human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells: a carrier-mediated process shared with pantothenic acid. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(5 Pt 1):C1365-1371.

Said HM. Biotin: the forgotten vitamin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Feb;75(2):179-80.

Schulpis KH, Karikas GA, Tjamouranis J, Regoutas S, Tsakiris S. Low serum biotinidase activity in children with valproic acid monotherapy. Epilepsia. 2001;42:1359-1362.

Singer GM and Geohas J: The Effect of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Poorly Controlled Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Randomized Trial. Diabetes Technol Ther 2006, 8:636-43.

Staggs CG, Sealey WM, McCabe BJ, Teague AM, Mock DM. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding. J Food Compost Anal. 2004;17:767-776.

Stratton SL, Bogusiewicz A, Mock MM, Mock NI, Wells AM, Mock DM. Lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase and its activation by biotin are sensitive indicators of marginal biotin deficiency in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:384-388.

van den Berg H. Bioavailability of biotin. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51 Suppl 1:S60-1.

Zempleni J, Chew YC, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and gene function by biotin: are biotin requirements being met? Nutr Rev. 2008 Aug;66 Suppl 1:S46-8.

Zempleni J, Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000;223:14-21.

Zempleni J, Wijeratne SS, Hassan YI. Biotin. Biofactors. 2009;35:36-46.

Zempleni J. Uptake, localization, and noncarboxylase roles of biotin. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:175-96.


Literaturliste zu Vitamin C

Anderson R. The Immunostimulatory, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-allergic Properties of Ascorbate. Adv Nutr Res 1984;6:19-45.

Bachleitner-Hofmann T, Gisslinger B, Grumbeck E, et al: Arsenic Trioxide and Ascorbic Acid: Synergy With Potential Implications for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia? Br J Haematol 2001; 112:783-6.

Bielory L, et al: Asthma and Vitamin C. Ann Allergy 1994;73:89-96.

Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, et al: A Randomized Controlled Trial of High Dose Ascorbic Acid for Reduction of Blood Pressure, Cortisol, and Subjective Responses to Psychological Stress. Psychopharmacology 2002; 159:319-24.

Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al: Simvastatin and Niacin, Antioxidant Vitamins, or the Combination for the Prevention of Coronary Disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1583-92.

Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976;73:3685-3689.

Carr A, Frei B. Does vitamin C act as a pro-oxidant under physiological conditions? FASEB J 1999;13:1007-1024.

Cathcart RF 3rd. Vitamin C in the Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Med Hypotheses 1984;14:423-33.

Cheng Y, Willett WC, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Weiss S, Hu H. Relation of nutrition to bone lead and blood lead levels in middle-aged to elderly men. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147:1162-1174.

Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Albers JJ, Brown BG. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:1320-6.

Choi HK, Gao X, and Curhan G: Vitamin C Intake and the Risk of Gout in Men: A Prospective Study. Arch Intern Med, 2009; 169:502-7.

Chuang CH, Sheu BS, Kao AW, et al: Adjuvant Effect of Vitamin C on Omeprazole-Amoxicillin-Clarithromycin Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication. Hepatogastroenterology 2007; 54:320-4.

Douglas RM, Hemila H, D’Souza R, Chalker EB, Treacy B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(4):CD000980.

Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, et al: Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Lancet 1999;354:2048-2049.

Dusinska M, Kazimirova A, Barancokova M, et al: Nutritional Supplementation With Antioxidants Decreases Chromosomal Damage in Humans. Mutagenesis 2003; 18:371-6.

Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 1992;3:194-202.

Evans AT, Husain S, Durairaj L, et al, Azithromycin for Acute Bronchitis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. Lancet 2002;359:1648-54.

Fang JC, Kinlay S, Beltrame J, Hikiti H, Wainstein M, Behrendt D, et al: Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;359:1108-13.

Feiz HR, Mobarhan S. Does vitamin C intake slow the progression of gastric cancer in Helicobacter pylori-infected populations? Nutr Rev. 2002;60:34-36.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin C. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press 2000:95-185.

Frei B. To C or not to C, that is the question! J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:253-255.

Gokce N, Keaney JF, Jr., Frei B, et al. Long-term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1999;99:3234-3240.

Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group: MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation in 20,536 High-Risk Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Lancet 2002; 360:23-33.

Jacques PF, Chylack LT, Jr., Hankinson SE, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1009-1019.

Jampol, LM: AREDS – Two Years Later. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121:1634-6.

Johnston CS. The Antihistamine Action of Ascorbic Acid. Subcell Biochem. 1996;25:189-213.

Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al: Relation Between Plasma Ascorbic Acid and Mortality in Men and Women in EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Study: A Prospective Population Study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet 2001; 357:657-63.

Knekt P, Ritz J, Pereira MA, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1508-1520.

Kromhout D: Essential micronutrients in relation to carcinogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45:1361-1367.

Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y, Bostick RM: Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1156-1162.

Langlois M, Duprez D, Delanghe J, De Buyzere M, Clement DL: Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis. Circulation 2001;103:1863-8.

Lee DH, Folsom AR, Harnack L, Halliwell B, Jacobs DR Jr: Does supplemental vitamin C increase cardiovascular disease risk in women with diabetes? Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1194-1200.

Lee SH, Oe T, Blair IA. Vitamin C-induced decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to endogenous genotoxins. Science 2001;292:2083-2086

Levine M, Conry-Cantilena C, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: evidence for a recommended dietary allowance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:3704-3709.

Levy AP, Friedenberg P, Lotan R, et al: The Effect of Vitamin Therapy on the Progression of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis Varies by Haptoglobin Type in Postmenopausal Women. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:925-30.

Levy AP, Friedenberg P, Lotan R, et al: The effect of vitamin therapy on the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis varies by haptoglobin type in postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:925-930.

Lingstrom P, Fure S, Dinitzen B, et al: The Release of Vitamin C From Chewing Gum and Its Effects on Supragingival Calculus Formation. Eur J Oral Sci 2005; 113:20-7.

Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Shea S, et al: Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Risk of Alzheimer Disease. Arch Neurol 2003; 60:203-8.

Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Ljung H, Bruce A, Wolk A. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer 2001;91:563-567.

Montonen J, Knekt P, Järvinen R, et al: Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:362-6.

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:23-33.

Mullan BA, Young IS, Fee H, et al: Ascorbic Acid Reduces Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes. Hypertension 2002;40:804-9.

Muller F, Svardal AM, Nordoy I, Berge RK, Aukrust P, Froland SS: Virological and immunological effects of antioxidant treatment in patients with HIV infection. Eur J Clin Invest 2000;30:905-14.

Myint PK, Luben RN, Welch AA, Bingham SA, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT. Plasma vitamin C concentrations predict risk of incident stroke over 10 y in 20 649 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk prospective population study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:64-69.

Nam CM, Oh KW, Lee KH, et al: Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in a Population With a High Prevalence of Smoking. J Am Coll Nutr 2003; 22:372-8.

Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al: Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:246-252.

Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, et al: Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:533-537.

Pattison DJ, et al: Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: prospective nested case-control study. Ann Rheum Dis. July 2004;36:843-7.

Pauling L, How to Live Longer and Feel Better, New York, NY: WH Freeman and Company 1986; 118-21.

Pauling LC. Vitamin C and the Common Cold. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman; 1970

Perrone G, Hideshima T, Ikeda H, et al: Ascorbic Acid Inhibits Antitumor Activity of Bortezomib in vivo. Leukemia 2009; 23:1679-86.

Petersen EE and Magnani P: Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin C Vaginal Tablets in the Treatment of Non-Specific Vaginitis. A Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004;117:70-5.

Pohle T, Brzozowski T, Becker JC, et al: Role of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Aspirin-Induced Gastric Damage in Humans: Gastroprotection by Vitamin C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15:677-87

Polidori MC, Pratico D, Ingegni T, et al: Effects of Vitamin C and Aspirin in Ischemic Stroke-Related Lipid Peroxidation: Results of the AVASAS (Aspirin Versus Ascorbic AcidPlus Aspirin in Stroke) Study. Biofactors 2005; 24:265-74.

Raschke T, Koop U, Düsing HJ, et al: Topical Activity of Ascorbic Acid: From in vitro Optimization to in vivo Efficacy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004; 17:200-6.

Ringsdorf WM Jr, et al: Vitamin C and Human Wound Healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1982;53:231-36.

Salonen RM: Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation. 2003;107:947-53.

Sasazuki S, Sasaki S, Tsubono Y, et al: Effect of Vitamin C on Common Cold: Randomized Controlled Trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006; 60:9-17.

Scholl D, Langkamp-Henken B: Nutrient recommendations for wound healing. J Intraven Nurs. 2001;24:124-32.

Simon JA and Hudes ES: Relation of Ascorbic Acid to Bone Mineral Density and Self-Reported Fractures Among US Adults. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 154:427-33.

Simon JA and Hudes ES: Serum Ascorbic Acid and Gallbladder Disease Prevalence Among U.S. Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Arch Intern Med, 2000; 160:931-6.

Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. JAMA. 1999;281:2289-2293.

Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of self-reported cataract among older Americans. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52:1207-1211.

Spargias K, Alexopoulos E, Kyrzopoulos S, et al: Ascorbic Acid Prevents Contrast-Mediated Nephropathy in Patients With Renal Dysfunction Undergoing Coronary Angiography or Intervention. Circulation 2004;110:2837-42.

Steinmetz KA, Potter JD: Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96:1027-1039.

Steyn PS, Odendaal HJ, Schoeman J, et al: A Randomised, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Ascorbic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Preterm Labour. J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 23:150-5.

Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC: Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:3225-3232

Traxer O, Huet B, Poindexter J, Pak CY, Pearle MS: Effect of ascorbic acid consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 2003;170:397-401.

Ullegaddi R, Powers HJ, and Gariballa SE: Antioxidant Supplementation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity and Mitigates Oxidative Damage Following Acute Ischaemic Stroke. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59:1367-73

Weinstein M, Babyn P, Zlotkin S: An orange a day keeps the doctor away: scurvy in the year 2000. Pediatrics 2001;108:E55.

Yokoyama T, Date C, Kokubo Y, Yoshiike N, Matsumura Y, Tanaka H. Serum vitamin C concentration was inversely associated with subsequent 20-year incidence of stroke in a Japanese rural community. The Shibata study. Stroke 2000;31:2287-2294.

Zandi PP, Anthony JC, Khachaturian AS, et al: Reduced Risk of Alzheimer Disease in Users of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements: The Cache County Study. Arch Neurol 2004;61:82-8.

Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:547-556.

Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Breederveld RS, et al, Can Vitamin C Prevent Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Patients With Wrist Fractures? A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Dose-Response Study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2007; 89:1424-31.

Kursübergreifende Literaturangaben zu Vitaminen und Spurenelementen

Biesalski HK, Biscoff SC, Puchstein C. Ernährungsmedizin. Nach dem neuen Curriculum Ernährungsmedizin der Bundesärztekammer. 4. Auflage. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 2010

Bundesinstitut für gesundheitllichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinärmedizin. Toxikologische und ernährungsphysiologische Aspekte der Verwendung von Mineralstoffen und Vitaminen in Lebensmitteln. Teil I: Mineralstoffe (einschließlich Spurenelemente). Vorschläge für Regelungen und Höchstmengen zum Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Überdosierung beim Verzehr von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln (NEM) und angereicherten Lebensmitteln. Januar 2002

Cliniguía. Actualización de diagnóstico y terapéutica. EviScience Publicaciones 2011

Colastra J: Lamberts. Manual de Nutrición Ortomolecular. El manual de consulta imprescindible. SIE Consultantts sl 2010

D-A-CH (2000) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung (DGE), Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung (ÖGE), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung (SGE), Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung (SVE): Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 1. Auflage, Umschau/Braus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung: Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 1. Auflage, 5., korrigierter Nachdruck, Neuer Umschau Buchverlag, Neustadt an der Weinstraße, 2013

Dietl H., Ohlenschläger G. (2003) Handbuch der Orthomolekularen Medizin. Karl F. Haug Verlag, Stuttgart

Domke A, Großklaus R, Niemann B, Przyrembel H, Richter K, Schmidt E, Weißenborn A, Wörner B, Ziegenhagen R: Verwendung von Mineralstoffen in Lebensmitteln. Toxikologische und ernährungsphysiologische Aspekte Teil II Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung. Verfügbar unter:  http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/350/verwendung_von_mineralstoffen_in_lebensmitteln_bfr_wissenschaft_4_2004.pdf (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Einkaufs-und Ernährungsverhalten in Deutschland TNS-Emnid-Umfrage des Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft, BMEL, (2014).

Europäische Richtlinie (2008/100/EG) vom 28. Oktober 2008 über die Nährwertkennzeichnung von Lebensmitteln hinsichtlich der empfohlenen Tagesdosen, der Umrechnungsfaktoren für den Energiewert und der Definitionen online verfügbar unter: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32008L0100:DE:HTML (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Europäische Empfehlungen: European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned (EURRECA). Verfügbar unter: http://www.eufic.org/en/collaboration/article/european-micronutrient-recommendations-aligned (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Food and Nutrtition Information Center der US Regierung (DRI-Empfehlungen). Verfügbar unter: https://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/dri-nutrient-reports (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Food Standards Agency (2002) Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Review of Molybdenum

Food Standards Agency (2003) Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, May 2003

Gröber U: Orthomolekulare Medizin. Ein Leitfaden für Apotheker und Ärzte. 3. Auflage. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Stuttgart 2008

Heppe F, Wigand M: Lexikon Diätetische Indikationen. Spezielle Ernährungstherapie und Ernährungsprävention. 4. Auflage. Springer 2002

Hernandez Ramos F: Antienvejecimiento con nutrición ortomolecular. Integral 2007

Institute of Medicine: Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, 2001

Koula-Jenik H, Kraft M, Miko M, Schulz RJ: Leitfaden Ernährungsmedizin. Urban & Fischer 2006

Otten JJ, Pitzi-Hellwig J, Meyers L (Eds): Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. The National Academies Press, Washington DC 2006

Richtlinie der European Food Safety Authority, EFSA, mit dem Titel „Scientific Committee on Food, Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies: tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and minerals. February 2006“.

Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council: Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1989

Vollwertig essen und trinken nach den 10 Regeln der DGE verfügbar unter:  http://www.dge.de/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=15 (eingesehen am 07.09.2023)

Pharmabrain Logo

European Union Trademark no. 006894216
US Patent and Trademark Office reg. no. 3,705,613
International Registration 1460744
All rights reserved.

Wir sind Pharmabrain.

Pharmabrain GmbH – Wir trainieren Ihren Erfolg
Gesundheitskommunikation, Teamentwicklung, Projektmanagement


Wissenschaftliche Exzellenz, praktische Orientierung, Implementierung


Unsere Enterprise Lösungen



Pharmabrain GmbH
Telefon: +49-30-28091515
E-Mail: support@pharmabrain.org

Research and Training Center

Schumannstr. 7b
D-10117 Berlin


Schumannstr. 7a
D-10117 Berlin